Hostile actions with Indians

Everything that is published on this page is not
been written by Sjoerd Bakker.
The articles and text have been down-loaded from the
Sjoerd Bakker did, however, compile these articles.

Chronological Fights
Southern Plains


July 11 – Techuacana Springs Capt Coleman – 1
Descendants of Thomas Williams
John Williams was killed on July 11, 1835, at Techuacana Springs while serving in
Robert M. Coleman’s,qv company of rangers that attacked the Tawakoni Indians
in retaliation for alleged depedations against settlements on the Colorado River.

Savage Frontier: Rangers, Riflemen, and Indian Wars in Texas, Volume I, 1835
p19-20, by Stephen L. Moore
In the wake of the Canoma episode, another volunteer group was organized to protect the frightened settlers.
Texas records show that Robert Morris Coleman was elected captain of a small frontier ranger company in
Robertson’s Colony. Although no muster roll of Coleman’s company has survived, he reportedly employed between eighteen and twenty-five men.
From June 12, 1835, Coleman served as two months and fifteen days “on the frontier as Capt. of Mounted
Riflemen. “
He had been ordered to assume this command by the Committee of Safety upon his return from the
Burleson/Moore expedition in which Chief Canoma had been killed.
Captain Coleman, thirty-six, was from Christian (later Trigg) County, Kentucky, and had come to Texas in 1830.
He had been granted twenty-four labors of land in Robertson’s Colony on February 1, 1835, located in present Lee County on the West Yegua River, not far from Bastrop.
Three of his rangers were Bastrop citizens, well-known to the Indians.
Coleman later wrote to Safety Committee Chairman Henry Rueg of his company’s activities.

The wanton outrages of the Indians not only upon our frontier, but in the midst of our settlements call for redress.
I on the 2nd July left the town of Bastrop with a company of men for the purpose of chastising those
menaces to civilized men.

Coleman’s men crossed the Brazos River at Washington on July 4, 1835, and made acampaign against Tawakoni Indians living near Tehuacana Springs in the present Limestone County.
His men were not discovered until they were east of the Brazos and near the village on July 11.
There, they fell in with an estimated one hundred Indians, mainly Tawakonis, with some Caddos and Ionis also.
According to pioneer John Holland, Coleman’s men used the cover of darkness to crawl up into the very midst of the Indians and wait for daylight before starting battle. The point man was Jesse Halderman, a store owner in Bastrop who had come to Texas from Kentucky in 1831.
Halderman was appointed to give the signal for attack but actions hastened his signal.
Jenkins later wrote:

Some dogs commenced barking, and one of the Indians arose and walked out to see what was the matter.
He soon showed that he discovered the concealed whites, so Halderman, realizing their danger, fired, thereby giving signal for the fight to begin.
It was a fierce and heavy fight, although Coleman’s eighteen men were struggling against an entire tribe.
He was at last forced to retreat: three men Halderman, Bliss and Wallace badly wounded, and one mister Wallace being killed.

Other sources state the name of the ranger killed to have been John Williams and that as many as four were wounded.
In return, Captain Coleman’s men managed to kill a number of Indians in the village.
The Indians were too numerous for the remainder to fight, and were reportedly spurred on by the fact that they recognized three Brazos men among their assailants.
“We had a severe battle,” Coleman wrote.
“One fourth of my men was killed or wounded. We took their encampment by a charge and the battle ended.”
Coleman’s party fell back to Parker’s Fort, where they arrived on July 11.

Oct 28 – nr Goliad Lt. Collingsworth – 1
Savage Frontier: Rangers, Rifleman..p48

Sept/Oct – San Gabriel Graves’ surveyors – 1
Savage Frontier: Rangers, Riflemen, and Indian Wars in Texas, Volume I, 1835
p29-30, by Stephen L. Moore
During late September, surveyor Thomas A. Graves set out from Bastrop in Robertson’s
Colony with a party of seventeen land surveyors and speculators. After surveying ten
leagues near the San Gabriel River, one of the small groups of surveyors was attacked
by a party of Indians. An Irishman named Lang was killed and scalped while working
his compass.


Febr 25 – San Gabriel Graves’ surveyors – 2

May 14 – Bastrop Hagget &Williams, Tumlinson Company – 2
Fort Tours – Bastrop:
May 14th, 1836, a band of ten to fifteen Comanches carrying a white
flag approached men working in the Hornsby’s field. John Williams and
Howell Haggard were speared and shot down. The other men took cover
and the Indians eventually decided against another attack and departed
with a hundred head of cattle from the neighborhood.
Travis County, TX – Hornsby Cemetery
On the west side of the path to the cemetery, it marks the former location
of the Hornsby Homesite.
Monument: “To John Williams and Howell Haggett. Killed by Indians in
May 1836 while detailed from Captain John J. Tumlinson’s Company of
Rangers to help protect the families of the Hornsby’s settlement on return
from the ‘run away scrape’.”

May 19 – Fort Parker – 3
Savage Frontier p366
May 19 – Parker’s Fort massacre:
Robert B. Frost
Benjamin Parker
Silas Mercer Parker sr.

June 7 – Bastrop Conrad Rohrer veteran Ranger
Savage Frontier 1, page 156

Aug. 22 – Coleto Indian Fight – 2
Savage Frontier volume 1, page 158
Colonel Burleson’s Ranger Battalion Forms
The sharp increase of Indian violence following the Texas Revolution required attention.
Some settlements were better protected than others.
For example, General Thomas Rusk authorized Captain John Goodloe Warren Pierson to raise
a sixty-men company of mounted men to protect the town of Washington-on-the-Brazos.
They were mustered in on June 30, 1836 and manned a fort dubbed Post Washington.
These men patrolled both sides of the Brazos for three months, and fought a battle with Comanches
on August 22 on Coleto Creek near Victoria.
Two of Pierson’s cavalrymen were killed and another two wounded, including his son Sergeant John
Hogue Pierson.
Post Washington was deactivated on September thirty, when Pierson’s volunteer company was discharged.
Page 298
21: Those killed in this battle were Thomas J Robinson and a man called Robinett
Index to Military Rolls of Republic of Texas 1835-1845
Descriptive Muster Roll of Captain Pearsons Company Mustered
into Service on the 30th June 1836 at Washington Texas
Musician Thos. J. Robinson 21, Substitute for James Adams
Killed in service on the 22d Aug 1836 by indians

Aug – Sandy Creek – 8
Indian Depredations in Texas, by J. W. Wilbarger
Captains Robinson and Robbins
August, 1836, these two officers, belonging to the Texas Army, under the command of general Thomas J. Rusk, were ordered out in charge of a small force of men to reconnoiter the position of some Indians who were encamped on a little stream called Sandy. While engaged in carrying out this order, they were boldly attacked by a large body of Indians at night, who had surrounded them under the cover of darkness.
The Texans stood their ground and defended themselves bravely until 8 were killed and nearly all the rest wounded.


Jan. 6 – Elm Creek – Erath – 2
Private David Clark
Texas Rangers, TX
EOW: Saturday, January 7, 1837

Jan 28 Trinity Rv East Texas Ranger(HallFame&Ft Houst) – 3
Texas Ranger Dispatch
Sergeant George Erath lost two men, killed in his Indian fight on Elm Creek
in January.
That same month, three East Texas Rangers were killed and a fourth was
wounded in an Indian encounter along the Trinity River

March – Lt, Wren’s Comanche Fight – 1
Savage Frontier page 362:
Philip Martin
Evolution of a State
We fired a volley after them, but they got into a ravine,
from which they fired back, one ball striking Philip Martin in the head,
killing him instantly.
The Texas Rangers page 41-42
Mc Connell 190. Andrews’ Men Fight With Indians Near the PresentCity of Austin.

May 10 – Mustang Prairie Indian Fight – 3
Savage Frontier page 362:
James Barnes, Daniel McClean, John Sheridan
Fort Tours Houston

May 27 – Perry’s Spring Indian Attack – 1
Savage Frontier page 362:
James Coryell
Milam County:
John Coryell. An Indian fighter—in 1836-1837. He was under Barron
and Robertson, stationed at 3 Forks of Little River April & May of
1837; killed September 27, 1837 by Indians from ambush.
The History of Bell County, p. 42 says he was killed fall of 1836.
Papers concerning Robertson’s Colony in Texas, Volume 10 p431

May 6 – Post Oak Springs Cp Daniel Monroe R – 5
SHQ Online p250
In May or June 1837, preparatory to withdrawing his rangers from
Little River Fort, Captain George B. Erath sent five of his men, con-
sisting of Aaron Cullins, Caleb Neill, David Farmer, Sterritt Smith and
Jesse Bailey to Nashville for wagons and teams with which to remove
the remaining two or three families to Nashville.
On their returning trip when they were nearing Postoak Springs five
miles north of the present Cameron, a gang of Comanches, crashing
from a post oak grove, attacked and murdered the entire group.
The Texas Rangers: A Registry and History 227
Farmer David M. Pvt. (Co. B, Btn. Mtd. Rifles)
May 6 1837, Post Oak Springs

Oct. Big Brushy – 1
J.H. Livergood, who resided with the Zumwalts when he first arrived in Texas, survived the Mier Expedition and was a Lavaca County Judge in 1852, related the incident:
“In October, 1837, shortly after I reached the Lavaca River, the Comanche Indians made a raid on the settlement of the Navidad near where Shulenberg now stands, killing a Mr. Lyons and taking captive his son Warren, age 13, whom they kept for ten years.
At this time there were but ten families in the bounds of this county, or rather this portion of Gonzales County, and hence there were but few to pursue.
A company of thirteen was mustered, however, some of whom were from Fayette County, and started in pursuit. Among those in this little band, I recall the names of James and Anthony Brown, Tucker Foley, W.H. Baldridge, David Kent (son of Andy Kent who fell with Travis in the Alamo), Pat Dorathy (Dougherty), Andy Zumwalt, Wm. Berntham, Burbanks, and a Mr. Stifner, a recent arrival from the old states.
They pursued the Indians northward into the mountains, where they struck another trail coming south, which they took and came upon the Indians on Big Brushy, near where Yoakum now stands.
A battle ensued, in which our party lost one man, Mr. Stifner, and had several wounded, but killed four Indians and captured thirty-two horses.

Nov 10 – Brazos Capt. Benthuysen – 10
November 10, 1837
Private Westley Nicholson
Private Jesse Blair
Private James Joslen
Private Lewis F. Scheuster
Second Lieutenant Alfred H. Miles
Private James Christian
Private Alexander Bostwick
Private William Nicholson
Private Joseph Cooper
Private William Sanders


Summer above New Braunfels surveyors – 9
Indian Depredations in Texas, by J.W. Wilbarger. In 1838, a ten-man surveying party began work near New Braunfels. One man, an experienced frontiersman, became alarmed at the carelessness of the rest of the party and left the group. The rest were later found killed.
Ten Surveyors During the summer of 1838 a party of ten men went from Bastrop County up the Gaudaloupe, above the town of new Braunfels. Evidence and Procedures for Boudary p236 A party of ten surveying along the Guadaloupe River, Texas, was attacked and all were killed.

April – Pine Oak Creek Richland Creek – (3)
DENTON COUNTY, TEXAS Sketches of Early Settlers
In 1838, three men, SPARKS, BERRY and HOLLAND, were killed the same day on the
south side of Richland, about twelve miles from the present town of Corsicana.
They belonged to a surveying party and were ambushed and killed while all the
others of their party were driven off.
Fort Houston Cemetery
Colonel Richard Sparks who lived near the fort was killed down near the
Trinity River and scalped. He, also, is buried in the soldiers’ plot.
Nothing else is known about him at this time.
When the 1830 census was taken, William Sparks was still in Lawrence County,
but by then his son, Richard, was living in Yazoo County from which he served
in the Mississippi State Legislature in 1828, 1829, and 1831. Richard Sparks moved to Texas in 1834 where he was killed by Indians while surveying land in 1838.
The Family ofCol. Richard Sparks
Richard Sparks was born in CA 1793 in Franklin County, Georgia.
It was about this time that Richard Sparks became involved in the practice of land surveying.
Richard Sparks was killed by Indians on Pin Oak Creek, in what is now Navarro Co, Texas in April, 1838, while he was checking on some land certificates there, according to his estate records and the memoirs of his son, S. F. Sparks,
Ft Tours, “Indian Depredations in Texas” by J. W. Wilbarger
During the year 1838 three men, Sparks, Barry and Holland, were killed by the Indians on the south side of Richland Creek, about twelve miles from where the town of Corsicana now stands. These three men belonged to a surveying party
Texas Pioneer Surveyors and Indians door F Daniell – 1957
During 1838, Richard Sparks, a Barry, and a Holland, who belonged to a surveying party, were killed by Indians on the south side of Richmond Creek, …

May – Settler’s Fight near Fort Oldham – 2
Savage Frontier page 363:
Dr. Bigham
Joseph Reed
The Sons of the Republic of Texas p144
Joseph Reed (Texan Army) killed by Indians 1841
Ft Tours Burleson County
Marker Title: Fort Oldham
Built 1836-37 by pioneers who took refuge with William Oldham (1798?-1868), Infantry major in Texas War for Independence. The fort stabilized the area, as dozens lived there in seasons of Indian raids, and eventually preachers who helped found early church. By 1838, Fort Oldham had a post office and was a stopping place on Independence-Tenoxtitlan Road. Maj. Oldham joined Somervell and Mier Expeditions (1842) to counter Mexican raids into Texas. Captured by the foe, he escaped, fought way through perils, and returned home. He amassed fortune in land surrounding fort site.
In the early part of May, Joseph Reed and Dr. Bigham were killed near William Oldham’s home. The May 30th issue of Telegraph and Texas Register reported the fight.
Ft.Tours Southeast Texas
Joseph was attacked by forty or more Indians, reaching his own house before he died. His wife drug him to safety before he could be mutilated or scalped. His brother attacked the camp with some volunteers and managed to kill the chief before being killed. The others in his party were wounded which may explain why they scalped the Indian.

Little Rv Curtis (Erath surveyors) Hist Milam County – 1
Erath, “Memoirs,” XXVII, 29.

? Joseph Rodgers Tumlinson Rangers – 1
Old Texas Days:
The old Tumlinson rangers were made up of citizens of Bastrop county,
among them being Joseph Rodgers, who was first lieutenant;
James Edmunston, Jimmie Curtice, Hugh M. Childers, John Williams,
Joe Berry, Jim Hamilton, Oliver Buckman, orderly sergeant;
Calvin Barker, Felix W. Goff, Ganey Crosby, familiarly known as “Choctaw Tom;” J
oe Weeks and many others whose names I do not now recall.
To the best of my knowledge they have all passed off the stage.
Captain Tumlinson died over on the Brazos;
Joseph Rodgers was killed by Indians between Coleman’s fort and Hornsby’s;
Petty, second lieutenant, after tearing up his commission during the runaway scrape, as formerly related, disappeared from view – he had probably had enough of military glory;
John Williams was killed by Indians, in Reuben Hornsby’s corn field, with Howell Haggett
Daughters of Republic of Texas, Volume 1 p51
..Joseph Rodgers who was killed by Comanches near Coleman’s Fort in 1837

Lampassas cp Lynch – 1

Benjamin Highsmith
In 1838 Mr. Highsmith went out with a surveying party under the leadership of Captain Lynch. Their course was westward and they finally established their camp between Salt and Cherokee creeks, where the land lay which they wanted to run off. This place is now covered by Lampasas County. There were twenty-five white men in the party, including the hunters. Work progressed all right. Game was plentiful and no signs of Indians. Nothing occurred worthy of note until the morning, when preparations were being made to break up camp and return to the settlements, the work, having been completed. At this time the men were surprised and thrown into momentary confusion by the furious onslaught of about forty Indians who had approached their camp through some thickets. The most of the white men were frontiersmen and good Indian fighters, and order was soon restored and the Indians driven back to cover again by a well-directed rifle fire. The men had time to reload before another charge came, and the Indians were again driven off after circling around the position of the whites, yelling and discharging a good many arrows, but without much effect. This kind of fighting was kept up for nearly an hour, when the Comanches, seeing it was going to cost them too much to continue it longer drew off. There was but one white man killed, and that was the brave Captain Lynch. He was shot through the body with a ballet, and died instantly, without speaking.

Spring/summer – Battle Creek surveyors – 16/18
Savage Frontier page 61
(Between 14-20)
Daughters of Republic of Texas, Volume 1 p19
Nicholas Fulton Baker October 8 1838 in Navaaro County killed by Indians while surveying

Oct 15(12) – near present-day Palestine Mexican-Indian force – 4-5
Texas Rangers: Killed in the Line of Duty:
Pvt. Killed in a fight with Indians, October 12, 1838.
Pvt. Killed in a fight with Kickapoo Indians, October 12, 1838.
Pvt. Killed in a fight with Kickapoo Indians, October 12, 1838.
Pvt. Killed in a fight with Indians, October 12, 1838.
Fort Houston Cemetery History
John W. Carpenter, veteran of the Battle of San Jacinto,
was born September 25, 1806, and died October 12, 1838.
He was killed about four miles east of present-day Palestine,
in an Indian skirmish prior to the main Battle of Kickapoo,
brought back to the Ft. Houston Cemetery and buried there.
Julius Bullock died in the same skirmish as described above.
They were part of Major Leonard H. Mabbitt’s force enroute to join
the army of General Thomas J. Rusk at the Battle.
He died the same day as John W. Carpenter and was one of those
brought back to Ft. Houston and buried in the cemetery there.
Thomas M. Scott, a private, was also killed on October 12, 1838.
The muster roll shows him to be of Capt. Squire Brown’s Co., 1st
Regiment, Mounted Gunmen, 4th Brigade.
Two others, John Wilson, and ______ Wright, were also reportedly
killed in this same skirmish and are buried in the soldiers’ plot in the
Savage Frontier page 363:

October 16 – Kickapoo Town – Gen. Rusk – 1
Fort Houston Cemetery History
James Hall, a member of Gen. Rusk’s Army was mortally wounded
in this battle, on October 16, 1838.
He and the other twenty-five wounded were borne on litters back to
Fort Houston. The others recovered but he lingered some twenty
days before dying in early November 1838.
Savage Frontier page 362
The officer down memorial page
December 17, 1838
Private James Hall
Texas Rangers, TX
EOW: Monday, December 17, 1838
Cause of Death: Assault
Texas Rangers Registry
Hall James Pvt. (Bradshaw’s Co., Mebbitt’s Btn.)
December 17, 1838. Kickapoo Creek Texas.
DOW inflicted October 16 1838 – died at Fort Houston
Indian Wars and Pioneers of Texas
At dawn on the 16th, Rusk was furiously assailed
by iibout nine hundred Kickapoos, Delawares,
lonies, Caddos, Cooshattas, a few Cherokees, and
Cordova with his Mexicans. Indians fell within
forty or fifty feet of the lines. Many were killed,
and after an engagement of not exceeding an hour,
the enemy fled in every direction, seeking safety in
the dense forest. The assaults were most severe on
the companies of Box, Snively, Bradshaw, Saddler
and Mabbitt’s command ; but owing to the sagacity
of Rusk in the selection of a defensive position, his
loss was only one man, James Hall, mortally wound-
ed, and twenty-five wounded more or less severely,
among whom were Dr. E. J. DeBard, afterwards
of Palestine, John Murchison, J. J. Ware, Triplett
Gates, and twenty-one others. It was a signal defeat
of Cordova and his evil-inspired desire for vengeance
upon a people who had committed no act to justify
such a savage resolve.

Oct 19 – Leon Springs; surveyors – 4-5
Oct 20 – Leon Captain Cage Volunteers – 8
LAPHAM, MOSES, Handbook Texas online
In March 1836 he became a spy for Sam Houston’s army and was a member of Erastus (Deaf) Smithqv’s party that destroyed Vince’s Bridge. Lapham rejoined the main army in time to participate in the battle of San Jacinto. In October 1836 Lapham helped to lay out the town of Houston. By March 1837 he was living in Fort Bend County and again aiding Borden. In 1838 he was surveying for Samuel A. Maverick near San Antonio when his party of five was attacked by Comanches, who killed him and three others on the afternoon of October 20, 1838.
Savage Frontiersman p83-84
Captain Cage Fight on the Leon
October 1838 was equally violent in other areas of Texas.
A party of Mexican and white surveyors camped at Leon Creek, about four
San Antonio, were attacked by Comanches on October 18.
At least five of these men were killed, including Cornelius Skinner,
a Mr. Jones of Bastrop, and San Jacinto veteran Moses Lapham.
Mr. Earnest and others escaped on foot to town.
Savage Frontier page 83 : 13
The Battle of Salado and Dawson Massacre
The Indians were ostensibly friendly, and occasionally come into San Antonio to make treaties; they complained about the hunters blazing their trees: and late in June 1838 finding on the Rio Frio a surveying party, the young Indians in driving past took off with them some of the horses of the camp: in trying to recover them Mr Campbell was killed, Capt Cage got an arrow in his face, Josh Threadgill and others escaped.
Sept 21st John C Hays with forty men started to survey the lands of the Rio Leona.
Oct 19th a surveying Camp at the Leon Springs seven miles from town, at the crossing of the Presidio Road, was attacked by Indians, and Moses Lapham a San Jacinto Soldier, and Mr Jones were killed; Mr Earnest escaped on foot and brought the news to town.
Captain Cage with twelve men went out to reconoiter, and when about four miles from town, at some Live Oak trees near the Presidio Road, were surrounded by a large body of Savages: Cage and seven others were killed.
Moses Lapham
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Moses Lapham (October 16, 1808 – 1838) was a soldier in the Texas Army during the Texas Revolution, noted for a daring action during the Battle of San Jacinto that helped seal the decisive Texian victory.
Lapham was born near the town of Smithfield, Rhode Island and was the son of Amos and Marcy Aldrich Lapham. He arrived in Texas in July 1831 and taught school at San Felipe, Texas. In 1836 he enlisted in the Texas army, was a member of Captain Moseley Baker’s “San Felipe Company”, and fought at the Battle of San Jacinto, where he was one of the men who destroyed Vince’s Bridge. The others who were with him on that mission were Deaf Smith, John Coker, Denmore W. Reaves, Young Perry Alsbury, John T. Garner and Edwin R. Rainwater. After the war, Moses Lapham worked as a surveyor and helped to lay out the new town of Houston, Texas. He was later employed as a deputy surveyor by Samuel Maverick of San Antonio to survey land for him. The party of five, (Mr. Maverick, the sixth member had returned home was on October 20, 1838) was attacked by Comanche Indians on Leon Creek about four miles from San Antonio, Texas and Moses Lapham, Cornelius Skinner, a Mr. Jones, and one other of the party were killed. The surviving members returned to town and spread the news. Thirteen prominent men headed by Benjamin Franklin Cage, a San Jacinto veteran, hurriedly left San Antonio and went to the place where the massacre had occurred. The Indians, estimated at a hundred or more, surrounded the Texans and killed Captain Cage, Dr. Henry G. McClung, R. M. Lee, a Mr. O’Blye, Peter Conrad, John Pickering and a Mr. Green, and badly wounded General Richard Dunlap and Major William H. Patton. The next day a search party brought in the remains of the dead. On the following day, their remains were interred in a single grave just outside of the Catholic Cemetery. Judge Robinson delivered the funeral oration.
The Valentine Bennet Scrapbook by Miles S. Bennet
Aug 1st. The land office opened at S. Antonio and I went out to the Medina River with Mr. Maverick, Josh Threadgill and surveyors. Another party was out on the Rio Frio, were attacked by Indians, Mr. Camel the surveyor was killed and Capt. Gage returned to town with a copper spike of an arrow in his face.
History of Texas from 1685 to 1892: Volume 2
John Henry Brown – 1970
On the Rio Frio, west of San Antonio, in 1838, a surveying party was attacked, the surveyor, Mr. Campbell, killed,
Border wars of Texas
… while on the Rio Frio, had some of their horses stolen by the Indians camped in the vicinity. Upon discovering and demanding the animals a fight ensued in which Mr. Campbell, the surveyor, was killed, and Captain Cage severely …


Jan 16 – Brazos (Strout’s) Mj Bryant Hist Milam County – 15
San Jacinto Veterans
Fullerton William
16 Jan 1839 Falls Killed by Indians near the falls of the Brazos.
Papers Concerning Robertson’s Colony in Texas, Volume 9
Page: 287
Andrew J. Webb 1815-1839
… in the militia. He was the only known hero in the family, he died in battle against the Indians while serving
The Texas Rangers: A Registry and History 230
Ward, Cyrus
Webb, Andrew

February 15 San Saba Col Moore – 1
John Moore’s Defeat on the San Saba 1838
(From John Henry Brown’s, The Indian Wars and Pioneers of Texas).
six of their comrades so wounded as to perish in the wilderness, or be transported on litters home by their fellows. Such was the condition of six of the number. They were William M. Eastland (spared then to draw a black bean and be murdered by the accursed order of Santa Anna in 1843); S. S. B. Fields, a lawyer of La Grange; James Manor, Felix Taylor, Leffingwell, and Martin, the latter of whom died soon after reaching home.
The Texas Rangers: A Registry and History 227
Martin Joseph S., Pvt. (Moore’s Co.)
February 14 1839. Wallace’s Creek, Texas
DOW – died a few weeks later

Febr. 25 Brush Creek – 4
(Minuteman & Mounted Volunteer Units)
The officer down memorial page
Captain Jacob Shipman Burleson
Private John B. Walters
Private Edward Blakey
Private James Gilleland EOW: Thursday, March 7, 1839

May 27(26) – Bird Creek – 5
see The Indians of Texas 347
Milam County
Killed by Comanche Indians on May 27, 1839 in Bird’s Creek fight a few miles from Three Forks [1]:
Capt. John Bird (buried Fort Griffin)
_____ Gale
_____ Nash
_____ Weaver
_____ _____ (unknown)
Continuing Indian raids caused settlers on the upper Brazos, Trinity and Colorado
rivers to petition the Congress of the Republic of Texas for help. On Sunday, May 26,
1839, Captain John Bird and Private Nathaniel Brookshire encountered three Indians
skinning a buffalo and routed them, capturing one of their horses laden with meat.
Around 9:00 a.m., a small party of Indians busily chasing a herd of buffalo and sighted
the rangers at the supposedly abandoned Fort Smith.
At 1:00 p.m., Captain Bird and 35 rangers tried to catch up with the Indians who remained
just outside of rifle range. The rangers charged, but to no avail, and decided to retreat.
At that point the rangers were surrounded by 40 Indians. The rangers dismounted and
walked their horses into the ravine (later named Bird’s Creek). Private H. M. C. Hall
persisted in remaining on horseback, and he was mortally wounded while dismounting on
the bank.
Smoke signals were sent and 200 Indians arrived from the Comanche, Caddo and Kickapoo
tribes. The Indians charged several times, but were repulsed by the rangers’ accurate fire.
In the battle, Private Thomas Gay fell dead in the ditch from a rifle ball; Private Jesse E.
Nash was shot and killed by an arrow; First Sergeant William H. Weaver was killed by a
rifle ball to the head; and Second Lieutenant William R. Allen and Private George W. Hensel
were severely wounded.
As the Indian fell back a second time, Captain Bird jumped up on the bank to encourage
his men and was shot through the heart by an arrow launched by an Indian at the extraordinary
distance of 200 yards. Just at dark Comanche War Chief Buffalo Hump and 12 warriors
charged the rangers. The war chief was killed and the Indians withdrew. The rangers reported
to have killed about 30-40 Indians and wounded about as many. The rangers secreted the bodies
of Bird, Weaver, Gay and Nash in the ravine and carted off the three wounded rangers –
Allen, Hensel and Hall. They reached Fort Smith about 2:00 a.m. on Monday, May 27.
Private Hall died soon after reaching the fort. Several days later the rangers returned to collect
the bodies. They were buried in one large crude coffin side-by-side on the banks of the Little River
near Fort Smith.
Related Line of Duty Deaths
Captain John Bird
Texas Rangers
End of Watch: Sunday, May 26, 1839
Private Thomas Gay
Texas Rangers, TX
EOW: Sunday, May 26, 1839
Private Jesse E. Nash
Texas Rangers, TX
EOW: Sunday, May 26, 1839
First Sergeant William H. Weaver
Texas Rangers, TX
EOW: Sunday, May 26, 1839
Private H. M. C. Hall
Texas Rangers, TX
EOW: Monday, May 27, 1839
Journals of the fourth Congress of the Republic of Texas, 1839 …, Volume 3‎ – Pagina 111Texas (Republic). Congress, Texas Library and Historical Commission, Texas State Library, Texas, Texas (Republic) – 1931
I regret much to report that we sustained a loss of seven men out of our little
band, killed and wounded. Killed, Oapt. John Bird, Serg’t. …

June 12 Brushy Creek Webster – 13
Massacre The Webster
As soon as possible after it was seen that the Indians were going to make an attack,
the wagons were formed into a small square and immediately the battle began.
This was a most unequal battle, for my mother often told me that the number of
Indians was estimated by my father and his men to be fully three hundred, my
father’s party being only 14 men.
The battle lasted from sunrise until 10 o’clock at night, when the last man of
the Webster party fell.
A tour of historical markers in Cedar Park and Leander
Webster Massacre (three markers)
A slab over the grave in Davis Cemetery:
“Here sleep the victims of the “Webster Massacre” of August 27,1839.
About thirty homesteaders headed by John Webster en route to what is now Burnet
County were attacked by a band of Comanche Indians.
After attempting to flee under cover of darkness, they were trapped in the vicinity.
Another marker in the Davis Cemetery reads:
“To the memory of Washington Perry Reese and William Parker Reese killed with
John Webster and company by the Comanche Indians August 27 A. D. 1839.
Aug 27
San Jacinto Veterans
Reese Washington Perry 27 Aug 1839 Killed by Indians near Leander
At San Jacinto he was in Captain Robert J. Calder’s Company.
In the year 1839, Washington Perry and William Parker Reese were guides for John Webster, who, with his wife and two small children and the families of Hughes and Thompson and a number of others, about thirty in all, were on their way to settle on their lands in what is now Burnet County. They were attacked by a band of Comanche Indians estimated at about two hundred. All in the party were massacred except Mrs. Webster and her son and daughter who were made captives and who eventually made their escapes from the Indians. The massacre occurred about two miles below the present town of Leander; in Williamson County.

10-23june Canon de Uvalde Karnes – (1)
The Valentine Bennet Scrapbook by Miles S. Bennet
10 to 23 inc. Engaged in a regularly organized military expedition against the Indians. Col. Henry Karnes, Comdg. Scouted high up on the Medina, and across into the Canon de Uvalde, lost one man killed
Manuscript Signed by Juan Seguin & Twenty Members of His Company of Tejanos—Documenting Karnes Campaign & Surveyor Skirmishes in 1839
The expedition referred to was organized and led by Henry Wax Karnes (1812-1840; Handbook of Texas Online) in response to Governor Lamar’s call for a punitive expedition against hostile Comanche who had killed four Béxar surveyors in May of 1839, William P. Delmour, clerk of the San Antonio court, who was murdered and scalped on May 28, and several other men in the area.
The expedition consisted of two companies.
In the three weeks the expedition was in the field, it managed to drive the Comanche out of the area (since they constantly retreated), killing a few of them and destroying some abandoned villages. Karnes never succeeded in forcing a pitched battle with his foes.
The only Texas casualty was Seguín’s soldier Pedro Flores Morales, killed by an accidental gunshot wound.

July 15/16 – Nueces; Cherokees – 7/8
Chronicles of Oklahoma
Daughters of Republic of Texas, Volume 1 p74
John Crane : killed in the Battle of the Neches, as captain of John Wade’s company

July 26 – near Ft. Lamar – 1st Regiment of Infantry – 1
Stirpes, Volume 35, Number 4, December 1995
page 42
Died – On the 26th July, near Fort Lamar, Nechez Saline, Lieutenant Timothy
O’Neil of the First Regiment of infantry, Texan Army.
Lieutenant O’Neil was scouting west of the Nechez, with a small detachment, and while riding a considerable distance in advance of his men, was killed and his body horribly mangled by a party of Indians, concealed in the Netchez swamp.
ONEALL-L Archives
Houston Morning Star Death Notices, August 12,1839-
Died–On the 26th July, near Fort Lamar, Nechez Saline, Lieutenant Timothy O’NEIL of the 1st Regiment of Infantry, Texas Army. Lieutenant O’NEIL was scouring the country west of the Nechez, with a small detachment, and while riding a considerable distance in advance of his men, was killed and his body horribly mangled by a party of Indians, concealed in the Netchez swamp.
Lieut. O’Neil embarked in the cause of Texas in the fall of 1835, and was one
of the volunteer corps raised in the city of New York by Col. E. H. STANLEY.
He was a brave and intelligent officer; and an amiable and high-minded man.
His untimely death is deeply lamented by his comrades and friends, and must
be sincerely regretted by all who knew him. He was buried with the honors of
war, by his company, at Fort Lamar. 8/12/1839:3

Nov. 11 – nr Richland Creek – Colonel Neill – 2
Savage Frontier 361
Colonel Neill’s expedition did suffer two casualties, however, in the
vicinity of Richland Creek.
This creek rises in southeastern Hill County and crosses Navarro County
before emptying in the Trinity in northern Freestone County.
The muster roll of Captain Reed’s Company G shows that privates
John J. Earle and Phillip Whepler were killed by Indians on November 11.
The Texas Rangers: A Registry and History 230
Whepler, Phillip

Dec 25 – Colorado River Burleson – 1
Ranger Mathew “Old Paint” Caldwell
By December 1839, Captain Caldwell was in command of a small, mounted spy party connected to Colonel Burleson’s First Regiment. His company joined an expedition of the army, which departed Austin on December 16. It included four other First Regiment companies and friendly parties of mounted Lipan Apache and Tonkawa Indian scouts. Burleson led his troops out in an offensive against hostile Indians.
On Christmas Day, they encountered a band of Cherokees about 100 miles northwest of Austin.
At least six Indians were killed, including at least two Cherokee chiefs.
The only Texas loss was former Texas Ranger Captain John L. Lynch from Captain Caldwell’s company.
Caldwell’s scouts pursued the Indians for several more days without further battle, and the expedition returned to Austin in January 1840.


Febr 28 nr. San Antonio Captain Redd – 2
Savage Frontier: 1840-1841; p361
Redd’s forty-eight-man company had reached Mission San José by February 29 and taken up station.
They joined Captain John Kennymore’s fifty-man Company C at the Mission San José near San Antonio. Captain Lewis’ seventy-man Company E would not reach San Antonio until the second week of March.
Redd’s company had seen its share of difficulties during the month.
After arriving at Mission San José on February 0, pri-vates William Andrew and Calvin Post had deserted on the night of February 20.
On February 4, he had sent a small group of soldiers from the three companies at the post to Gonzales to fetch supplies for the post.
On their return from Gonzales on February 28, the small party was attacked by Indians at a point only two and a half miles from San Antonio.
Two privates––Henry Douglass of Company A and Richard L’Estrange of Company I––were killed.
Private C. A. Root of Company A was wounded by a shot in the small of the back. Root’s fellow soldier William Kelly also sur-vived, as did Private Augustus Kemper of Company C.

19 march Council House – 3

Aug 5 east Victoria Cl P Caldwell (quartermaster Reg. Inf) – 1
(Sons deWitt)
CALDWELL, PINCKNEY COATSWORTH (1795–1840). Pinckney Caldwell, soldier of the Republic of Texas, was born in Kentucky in 1795 and came to Texas in December 1830. He was one of the defenders of the famous Gonzales “Come and Take It” cannon. According to Launcelot Smither Caldwell sent a communication to Capt. Francisco de Castañeda on October 1, declaring a truce with the Mexican lancers, but nevertheless the insurrectionists attacked the Mexican camp the following morning. Caldwell was a member of the council of war called by Gen. Stephen F. Austin on November 2, 1835, which determined that Bexar should be taken by siege rather than storm. Caldwell voted with the majority.
On November 24, 1835, Edward Burleson appointed William A. Pettusqqv quartermaster and Caldwell his assistant. Caldwell, with the rank of captain, forwarded supplies from Gonzales to the Texas army besieging Bexar until he was wounded, sometime before December 23, 1835. At the battle of San Jacinto he served as quartermaster on the staff of Lt. Col. Henry W. Millard, commander of the Regular Infantry. On August 17, 1836, quartermaster general Almanzon Huston reprimanded Caldwell and reported him to their superiors for failure to comply with orders to post quarterly returns on government property in his charge. Caldwell was discharged on November 20, 1836, but reentered service as a quartermaster of the Army of the Republic of Texas. His appointment was confirmed by the Senate on May 22 and again on January 11, 1837. By May 3, 1839, Caldwell was serving as quartermaster in Houston with the rank of major. William Gordon Cooke was then quartermaster general. Caldwell, whom pioneer Texas historian John Henry Brown called “a soldier of repute . . . and a man of talent,” was killed in an Indian raid at Victoria on August 6 or 7, 1840.
San Jacinto Veterans
Caldwell Pinckney Coatsworth Major 6/7 AUG 1840 Victoria Killed by Indians near Victoria.

7aug east Victoria Cpt Zumaldt Mordeci – 1
(Sons deWitt)

8 aug Lavaca R Cpt Owen Comp. Bell – 1
(Sons deWitt)
Capt Rufus Perry
In the beginning of August, 1840, a large Indian trail was discovered passing down the country. Rufe was on the La Vaca river. He used all his energies to induce the people to turn out, well knowing, from the apparent number of the party, there would be warm times. He joined Capt. Adam Zamalt’s company, and acted in the capacity of spy. The trail was struck between the La Vaca and the Guadalupe; it passed by Victoria to Linnville. The Indians had attacked the former place, and were willing to withdraw. The latter they had taken by surprise, and killed or captured the most of the citizens who had not the good fortune to take refuge on board a small vessel.
Ben McCulloch had organized a corps of citizens. Major John Tumlinson was in the field, and was placed in command.
They met the Indians on the 9th of August, on the Casa Blanca creek, and had a skirmish, which resulted in the loss of one Texan and five or six Indians.

Aug 12 – Plum Creek – 2
(Report Gen. Huston, Sons deWitt)
The Texas Rangers: A Registry and History 227
Wolf (deWolf), Gottip, Pvt. (Border Guards)
Augustus 12, 1840. Plum Creek, Texas

Sept 17 – Chambers Creek Dry – 5
AFTER SAN JACINTO: The Texas-Mexican Frontier, 1836-1841 page 96/97
Cooke proceeded with his men toward the Trinity, making slow
progress of from six to eight miles a day, because of having to cross
numerous creek bottoms with wagons pulled by mules in poor condition.
Owing to the dryness of the season the men were forced to camp several
times without water.
Finding Chambers Creek dry, some ten or fifteen of the men went back
upon the trail for water and, contrary to orders, without their muskets.
They were ambushed by a party of Indians and five of their number killed.
History of Dallas County, Texas : from 1837 to 1887 P7: Idem

Dec betw. Red & Brazos rivers – 30
Indian Depredations in Texas, by Wilbarger:
On the 18th of November, 1840, a surveyor by the name of Dick Sparks, with a company of about 40 men, left San Augustine………They had been surrounded by a large party if Indians, and almost every man was killed lying in his blanket. Robert Wires and another men named Kellogg made their escape
McConnell – 206. Fate of Dick Sparks’ Surveying Party. –
Dick Sparks, in company with several companions, left San Augustine,
November 18, 1840, for the territory between the headwaters of the Brazos and Red Rivers.
For fifteen days they traveled without seeing an Indian sign. This, of course, made them feel secure. In due time they reached their destination and had been surveying for about three days when a large herd of buffalo came driving towards the expedition. Since the animals seemed somewhat frightened, Good Eye Roberts, a veteran old Indian
fighter, told Captain Sparks and his men that the critical time had come to be on alert for Indians. But it seems the captain became impatient with the old frontiersman and informed him that he was a coward and should wait until night to waste his words. To this statement, Roberts replied, “Very well, Captain, you will talk too, after a while and with good reason.” After camp was reached, and a very fine supper of venison and wild honey was enjoyed by the hungry surveyors, and after exchanging the usual campfire stories, the surveyors retired to bed for a much-needed rest. They had hardly fallen asleep, however, when they were awakened by the hideous screams of yelling savages. Robert Wires and Kellogg alone made their escape from camp, and they were pursued by the hostile savages of the plains. For a considerable distance they ran.
Wires told Kellogg he had recently been suffering with chills and did not have sufficient strength to go farther. He also told
Kellogg to save himself if he could; but shortly afterwards they
reached a cliff, and, altho Kellogg dashed on, Wires made a
quick turn to the right and hid himself in the rocks. Shortly
afterwards, four Comanches came breaking through the night in
search of the two citizens. In the mad rush they hurriedly
passed the place where Wires was hiding, but did not go a great
distance before they stopped. The Indians then turned and
came to the identical spot where Wires was hidden. At one time
the assailants almost stepped on him, but fortunately they
never found his whereabouts. Battered and bruised by a long
bitter journey, the two surveyors finally found their way back to
San Augustine. Kellogg arrived one day and Wires the next –
only to relate the sad story of their companions.


May 21 Pecan Creek Chandler – 0
Savage Frontier: 1840-1841: Rangers, Riflemen, and Indian Wars in Texas
Thomas Smith slightly wounded
Pecan Creek
April 21, 1841; Corsicana: One Texas militia company, organized in Robertson County in March 1841, was led by Capt. Eli Chandler, a forty-two-year-old South Carolinian who had come to Texas in 1835.
In early April, Indians raided along the Navasota River, killed a man, and chased off eight horses.
Chandler pursued the raiders unsuccessfully.
On 16 April, Chandler got word of a group of Indians living on Pecan Creek, a tributary of the Trinity River, in present-day Navarro County.
He and his forty-five-man company from Franklin marched north. They were later joined by seven more volunteers.
On the night of 20 April, the Texans discovered a deserted village of twenty-eight lodges.
The next morning they followed the Indians’ trail about five miles up Pecan Creek, where they ran into eight or ten Comanches.
When the Indians veered off, Chandler gave chase, but after about three miles they eluded him.
Realizing the trail was a fake, Chandler countermarched back to the main trail and returned to the abandoned village, where he took up a smaller trail.
After one mile the volunteers ran into the same Indians, this time on the real trail to the new village.
In pursuit of the Comanches, Chandler led one column down the trail, while Lt. William M. Love took another detachment along a path that followed a ridgeline between two parallel creeks. With little space to maneuver, the Texans chased the warriors for five more miles. The Indians outraced them, but not by much, and they got to the village barely in time to shout a warning. It was enough, however, and many of the Indians got away before the Texans opened fire.
The village was surrounded by nearly impenetrable thickets, so Chandler had his men dismount.
The Texans scoured the brush for the fleeing Comanches, but nearly all of them escaped.
Chandler reported three Indians killed and several wounded.
Only one Texan was wounded.
A Memorial and Biographical History of Navarro, Henderson, Anderson, Limestone, Freestone and Leon Counties, Texas p400

May Captain Sloan party – 1
Bill Fairley,Village Creek meant as lesson:
In the spring of 1841, Capt. Robert Sloan reported to Tarrant that an Indian
had killed a member of his scouting party and escaped.

May 24 Tarrant Expedition Denton – 1
Savage Frontier: 1840-1841: Rangers, Riflemen, and Indian Wars in Texas

Or 1843 spring Bandera Pass capt Hays – 5/6

Santa Fe Expedition – 9
Forgotten Texas Leader
page 83-85; affair George Hull and Company, 5 killed
page 87; about September 7, with the advance party under Sutton :
Two men wandered off and disappeared…
page 89-90: on September 12, with the main party, two men killed by Indians

July 29 Llano Hays – 1
Savage Frontier: 1840-1841: Rangers, Riflemen, and Indian Wars in Texas
John Slein

Aug 22 nr. Old Franklin – Maj. Heard – 1
H I S T O R Y O F R O B E R T S O N C O U N T Y In August, 1841, Major G. W. Heard, commanding a company of eight “minute-men” left “old Franklin” on a scouting expedition toward Parker’s Fort. Early the next morning, when about fourteen miles from town, they were attacked by a band of Indians. Eighteen Indians had secreted themselves in a ravine near the path which the company would take. Major Heard was in the lead, and when the company came to the ravine, the savages rose up and fired on them. Major Heard fell dead
Savage Frontier volume 3 p 312&316
Aug 22 Heard
The Texas Rangers: A Registry and History 227
Heard George W., Pvt., (Chandler’s Co.)
August 22 1841. Near Franklin, Texas

Aug 5 – 1
see cordova rebellion
Savage Frontier volume 3 p313-14
Ft. Tours Erath’s Fight
In July 1841 Erath gathered his Milam County militia, met with
Capt. Eli Chandler’s men from Robertson County, and went looking for Indians…..
Suddenly Indians, either Cherokees or Kickapoos according to Erath, opened fire….
Capt. A.J. Smith was killed in the first volley
The officer down memorial page
Private Abram Trigg Smith
Texas Rangers, TX
EOW: Thursday, August 5, 1841
Cause of Death: Gunfire
A Memorial and Biographical History of Navarro, Henderson, Anderson, Limestone, Freestone and Leon Counties, Texas p401

Dec 7 Stein Killed Line of Duty – 1


June Captain Greer – 1
About the same time Captain Greer, who had charge at Fort Boggy, accompanied by two or three companions went on a prospecting tour to the upper Keechi creek in the northern part of the county. While they were on a prairie bordering the creek, a band of ten or twelve Indians, mounted on horses, rushed out from a line of timber along the margin of the creek, yelling and brandishing their weapons, and charged Greer and his companions, who at once put spurs to their horses, hoping to reach the hills and timber where they would have some chance for a successful defence. Captain Greer, however, being poorly mounted, fell behind, and was overtaken in the prairie and shot to death by arrows. His companions succeeded in making their escape. They made their way back to Fort Boggy and securing assistance at the fort returned the next day for the body of Captain Greer, which they found near the spot where he was overtaken by the Indians

16 sept Salado deWitt Jouett – 1


Jan 1 William Bell Waller Creek – 1

William Custard
1842 – March – William Custard and William Bell joined Capt. Washington D. Miller´s company to repel the Mexican army of Gen. Rafael Vasquez
December 30, 1842 William Custard and William Bell defended Austin in the Archive War
January 1, 1843 William Bell was ambushed southeast of Waller creek by Indians, he was killed and scalped.

May, June – Snively Expedition – 4
SWQ two Texas Patriots:
Colonel Snively moved a few miles up a creek. His force was now reduced to about 50.
Twice they fought off attacks by Indians, losing a few men and a good many horses.
However, they decided to attempt to intercept the wagon train. Two scouts, sent forward, were killed by Indians
Niles’ weekly register, Volume 64
The Texan Account. An extra of the Clarksville (Texas) Standard of the 1st inst.,
has just reached us, which gives the following version of the affair:
They were thus tied up for several days, until the men induced Snively tp resign.
Then, when then the traders had got five days start from the crossing, travelling day and
night, it was found that they had no escort, and could have been captured without an effort.
The distance from the crossing, to Santa Fe, is only 25Q miles, and it would have been
impossible to overtake them, until Uhey got to the neighborhood of Santa Fe.
Our men had not sufficient force to bring the wagons from there; and all but sixty-five of
the men returned, fifty of them, by way of Missouri.
The others elected YVarfield their commander, and pushed on under authority of his
commission. They will probably do little or nothing. Snively is with them.
During the trip John H. Davis, and Elisha C. Simons, of this town, Francis Sharpe of
this neighborhood, and a man by the name of Caldwell, from Paris, Lamar county,
were killed by Indians.
The two from this place, we knew personally. Ther were young men of character.
Davis was from Louisiana, lastly Mississippi, but had been in this county about five years.
Simons was from the western part of the state of New York, had been here four years,
and lived in Santa Fe and Chihuahua.
Narrative Of The Texian Invincibles.
Next day, however, Captain Cooke took us by surprise, as we had no spies out,
and one half of our men were out buffalo hunting. That officer contended that we
were east of the 100th degree of longitude, and demanded our arras, giving us full liberty
otherwise; which terms we accepted, it being the most politic, both as regarded ourselves
and our government. Colonels Snively and Warfield with seventy men started to return
with five guns to Texas. The Camanche Indians took advantage of their defenceless state—
killed four of their men, and drove off sixty horses and mules. Warfield pursued tbem
with five men, intending to retake the horses, but he was surrounded by about 150 Indians.
Warfield repelled the attack; killed seven Indians, and returned to camp without having a
man hurt.
Forgotten Fights
Owl Creek
July 4, 1843; Cimarron, Kansas: The embarrassment of Texans over the failures of the Santa Fe Expedi­tion of 1841 and the Mier expedition of 1842, as well as Mexican general Adrian Woll’s 1842 raid on San Antonio, led Texan Jacob Snively to petition the Republic of Texas for permission to retaliate. On January 28, 1843, he requested approval for an expedition to capture Mexican caravans passing through territory claimed by Texas along the Santa Fe Trail. With permission granted, nearly 200 Texans gathered at Fort Johnson, near Coffee’s Station on the Red River. Calling themselves the Battalion of Invincibles, they organized themselves into four companies and chose Snively as their commander.

The force, about 190 strong, crossed the Red River and traveled northwest across present-day Oklahoma, finally reaching the Arkansas River. Snively kept his force hidden south of the river for one month, hoping to pounce on passing Mexican wagon trains. On one occasion, they battled a force of a hundred Mexican soldiers, killing seventeen and capturing the others, but the rest of the time was spent waiting. The long days of inactivity soon brought discontent, and many of the men wanted to return home. On 28 June, the battalion was disbanded and the prisoners were released.

The men divided into two groups, designated the “Mountaineers” and the “Home Boys.” The latter group of about seventy-six men selected Eli Chandler, who had opposed many of Snively’s actions, as their leader. The companies marched separately to the Arkansas River. On 30 June U.S. Dragoons under Capt. Philip St. George Cooke, who had been sent to protect the Mexican caravans, discovered and disarmed the Mountaineers, leaving them with only ten muskets. Most of the Texans, however, had hidden their good weapons when they saw the Dragoons, and they gave Cooke only the arms they had captured from the Mexicans. About forty-two of Snively’s men accepted Cooke’s offer to escort them back to Independence, Missouri, rather than retrace their steps through dangerous Indian country. Snively and the rest rejoined Chandler on 2 July.

On 4 July, the company camped at a little stream called Owl Creek, which does not appear on modern maps but may have been near present-day Cimarron, Kansas, There, more than a hundred Comanches attacked the Texans and stampeded about fifty of their horses. After fighting off the attack, about thirty mounted Texans tenaciously pursued the raiders until nightfall. Finally catching up with the Indians, the Texans killed about twelve warriors and recovered some of the stock. They lost one of their own men in the fight, however, and several were wounded.

With men wounded, horses lost, and ammunition getting low, the Texans knew they were running out of options. When a large Mexican caravan appeared on the Santa Fe Trail on 13 July, the Texans followed it for a while but soon realized that its escort was too large to fight. The reunited companies, under Snively, finally turned toward home.

Llano River Cpt Hays – 2
Texas Ranger Dispatch, Captain Jack Hays
In 1843, a boy rode into Hays’ Ranger camp blurting that his family had been jumped by hostiles several miles away. Hays and his men galloped to the site. Two children lay dead, the father was seriously wounded, and a seventeen-year-old daughter had been carried off. The sobbing mother was in shock.
Hays left two men behind and then rode in pursuit. An hour later the Comanche camp was discovered near the Llano River.
Hays waved a revolver in his right hand and led a charge. The startled Indians scrambled for weapons, but within moments the warriors broke for the river. After a running fight to the river, the surviving braves splashed across the shallow stream and fled into a grove.
Hays reined his men in at the riverbank and counted casualties.
Two Rangers were dead and five wounded. Five Indians had died.


April – Nueces Canyon – 1
Texas Ranger Dispatch
In April 1844, more than two hundred Comanche warriors charged Hays and fifteen Rangers in Nueces Canyon. Hays directed his dismounted men to keep their horses nearby and to hold their fire until he triggered a signal shot. Coolly, Hays waited until the galloping braves were almost on top of his command. The volley at close quarters decimated the Comanche line, and rifle and pistol fire sent the hostiles reeling back. Hays aggressively ordered his men into their saddles and pressed a counterattack. A flurry of revolver balls at close range toppled more warriors, and the Comanches dropped their lances and raced away at top speed.
After inflicting heavy punishment, Hays called off the chase. A recruit named Paddy stated that a wounded Indian had crawled into a nearby grove. Hays cautioned Paddy to leave the brave alone; pursuit into the thicket might prove fatal. Heedless of the warning, Paddy announced that he was unafraid of a crippled Indian. He plunged on foot into the thicket. Moments later he screamed in pain. Four Rangers leveled their pistols and moved in. The warrior was sighted and promptly shot to death. Paddy lay fifteen feet away, an arrow through his chest.
Early Settlers and Indian Fighters in Southwest Texas
A corroboration of these statements is partially verified in the following evidence, and if it was possible to
procure a complete list of the killed, the destruction of human life west of the Guadalupe River during the years enumerated would be increased enormously.
1844. An Irishman, one of the Hays Rangers, was killed in the Nueces canon, name unknown.

Colonel Oldham’s Fight on Cedar Creek – 2
Wilbarger’s Indian Depredations in Texas
The whites had several good dogs with them, and put them on the trail.
The Indians dashed into Cedar creek bottom, and in order to escape from the dogs, they waded some distance up the creek. But finding that the dogs still followed them, they left the creek and took their position in a small hammock where the soil was very loose and sandy. The dogs trailed them to the edge of this hammock where they stopped and bayed furiously.
Messrs. Reed and Bingham went to where the dogs were baying, and the former seeing an Indian partially buried in the sand (for the Indians had dug holes in it with their butcher knives sufficiently deep to protect themselves from the bullets of the whites) raised his gun and fired on him, and at the same instant the Indian fired also.
His bullet entered Reed’s breast, inflicting a wound from which he expired in a short time.
The bullet from Reed’s gun also struck the Indian. By this time the main body of Colonel Oldham came up and endeavored to route from the strong position They had taken.
In this attempt Bingham was killed.

May 30 Corpus Christi – 3
Raid on Corpus Christi
Henry Kinney’s outpost was hit by 17 Comanche warriors.
After a shootout in town, the Indian raiders took some horses and escaped,
followed by Henry Kinney and 10 other men.
Of the 11 Texans, three were killed and the rest wounded.
Memorializing America’s `domestic soldiers’
4 killed 6/?/1844 Corpus Christi (near) Indians
Texas Online
COOKE, LOUIS P. (1811-1849).
During the Comanche raid on Corpus Christi 1844, Cooke was wounded with
an arrow in the side of his head and lost an eye.

June 9 – Walker Creek Hays – 1/2
Texas Ranger Dispatch
On June 8, 1844, Hays and fourteen Rangers encountered a large war party of Comanches near Walker’s Creek. The Indians rode to the crown of a steep hill, formed a battle line, and began shouting taunts at the Texans. Leading his men forward at a slow trot, Hays cupped his hands and roared insults at the chief. Hays maneuvered his men into position, formed a V, and charged. The Indians surged toward the Rangers, who fired a rifle volley and broke the Comanche attack.
The hostiles quickly regrouped, and Hays directed his men to drop their empty rifles and draw revolvers. The Indians pressed in and employed lances and bows and arrows. The Rangers popped away furiously with their revolvers. Within fifteen minutes more than a score of Indians had been slain, and nearly all the Texans and numerous warriors were wounded.
The Indians broke off the fight, but with his customary tenacity, Hays rode after the retreating foe. A running fight lasted for two miles before the chief rallied his braves for a counterattack. Hays directed his outnumbered men to fight in relays: several would ride ahead and fire their pistols; then another squad with reloaded revolvers would replace them.
At last the chief organized another assault within sight of the Rangers. Hays asked if anyone still had a loaded rifle. Ad Gillespie, although reeling from a wound, dismounted and drew a bead. When the chief was just thirty yards away, Gillespie shot him in the head. The chief fell dead and the demoralized Indians broke. Hays led a brief pursuit but called a halt after killing a few more braves.
Four Rangers were wounded and Peter Fohr lay dead on the field. Twenty-three unrecovered Indian corpses were counted, and perhaps thirty braves had suffered wounds.

History of Texas, together with a biographical history of
Milam, Williamson, Bastrop, Travis, Lee and Burleson counties
Skirmish 1844 Col. Hays 80 miles from San Antonio
Rangers lost 2 killed, 5 wounded, 30 dead Indians left


Frank Litton – 1
History of Texas, together with a biographical history of Milam,
Williamson, Bastrop, Travis, Lee and Burleson counties
Frank M. Litton ranger, member Captain Belligsley
Killed in personal encounter with Indians in 1845

June 7 near Austin – 1
Atkisson William d. 7 June 1845 Ranger killed by Indians w/ Daniel Hornsby
at Blue Bluff
Travis County, TX – Hornsby Cemetery
“To William Atkinson, Pioneer Ranger buried near Daniel Hornsby when both
were killed by Indians 7 Jun 1845.”
Old Texas Days
The last murder by Indians in the vicinity of Austin was in June, 1845,
when Daniel Hornsby and William Adkinson were killed while fishing on the
Colorado below Austin.

– 4

A Texas Pioneer; Early and Overland Freighting Days on the Frontiers of
… by Santleben August
page 262
A Corroboration of these statements is partially verified in the following evidence, and if it was possible to procure a complete list of the killed, the destruction of human life west of the Guadaloupe during the years enumerated would be increased enormously
Wesley Deer, one of Captain Warfield’s rangers, in Sabinal canyon
Heck, a ranger, one mile west of “sunset”railroad crossing over Sabinal on El Paso road
Unknown ranger of Captain Walker’s company, near Sandy branch, in Medina County
Noah Mangum, a Ranger, on the east side of the Leona, ten miles below Uvalde

Lieutenant Knox Uvalde County, Texas
Lieutenant Knox’s Fight in the Sabinal Canyon
Captain Warfield was placed in command of a company of rangers stationed
near D’Hanis, in 1845, to protect the German Settlements in that vicinity.
A part of his command under the leadership of Lieutenant Knox, went on a
scouting expedition in the Sabinal Canyon. Somewhere in the vicinity of the
present town of Utopia, a large number of Indians were encountered and in
the fight that followed, eight of their number were killed.
Lieutenant Knox lost one man.
Early settlers and Indian fighters of southwest Texas‎ – Pagina 322
While the company was stationed here Lieutenant Knox went on a
scout into Sabinal Canyon and had a fight with the Indians, in which
Wesley Deer was killed
Texas Lawmen, 1835-1899: The Good and the Bad p296
Mangum Nathaniel ..
wounded by Lipan Apaches at the Leon River on 4 September 1848
He died the next day at Camp Leon.
Texas Lawmen, 1835-1899: The Good and the Bad p297 John Wesley
228. Lieutenant Knox’s Fight in the Sabinal Canyon. –
Captain Warfield was placed in command of a company of
rangers stationed near D’Hanis, in 1845, to protect the German
settlements in that vicinity.
A part of his command under the leadership of Lieutenant Knox, went on a scouting expedition in
the Sabinal Canyon. Somewhere in the vicinity of the present town of Utopia, a large number of Indians were encountered and in the fight that followed, eight of their number were killed.
Lieutenant Knox lost one man.
McConnell 229. Heck Killed and Huffman Wounded. –
Captain Warfield’s company, mentioned in the preceding section, was moved from the ranger camp near D’Hanis, shortly after the preceding engagement, to a point on the Leona River about three miles below the present city of Uvalde, and occupied a position that was later known as Fort Inge.
Privates Lee Gholsten, Heck, Huffman, and three others were detailed to go to San Antonio for supplies.
While the rangers and freighters were returning in five wagons, and when they reached the Sabinal River, Heck and Huffman left their companions and proceeded ahead for the purpose of killing a deer.
They had only gone about one mile, when the two were ambushed by about fifty Lipan Indians, who often professed friendship to the whites.
Heck was killed and as Huffman made a rapid retreat back to the wagons, he was wounded in the thigh with an arrow. When he reached the wagons, and was prepared for battle, the Indians stopped and did not charge. As they retreated, they fired the grass to obliterate their trail.
Since it burned over the dead and mutilated body of Heck, his corpse was difficult to find. Private Lee was dispatched to headquarters for assistance, and in due time the rangers were on the Indians’ trail, which led toward the Leona River and reached that stream about seven miles below the camp, at which point the forty Lipans were charged by thirteen rangers.
It cannot be said either side whipped the other, and during the fighting Nat Mangum received a mortal wound. Most of the firing was done at long range, and a chief who wore a helmet of buffalo horns, would dash out of the timber, fire at the rangers, and then retreat again under cover. It was agreed that the next
time he made his appearance several would simultaneously fire
at this particular individual. They did, and he instantly fell dead
on the ground. Evidently, this ended the battle, for shortly
afterwards, the Indians retreated across the river.

October betw Austin and New Braunfels – 2
The relations between the german settlers and the Indians in Texas, 1844-1860
In October, 1845, two Germans, Captain Friedrich v. Wrede and Lieutenant Oscar Claren, were killed and scalped as they were returning to New Braunfels from Austin.

Nov. – Capt. Kemper – 1
The last notable hostile act of this tribe was the murder of Capt. John Frederick Kemper,
at his ranch home, ” Kemper ’s Bluff,” on the Guadalupe- River, in Victoria county.
This hardy pioneer was a native of Kentucky, but came from Tennessee to Texas in 1836,
having been previously united in marriage to Miss Eliza Miller, -daughter of Col. Miller,
who brought volunteers to the Texas army three separate tfbnes 1 the first as early as
the year 1835. Capt. Kemper was in command of an artillery company in Colonel Miller’s
regiment. The command
was made prisoners of war at Copano, immediately after Fannin’s disastrous battle of the Oalito; were* seipiajralted 1 anid spared from the inhuman massacre perpetrated a few days afterwards.
Captain Kemper setfbled at Kemper ’s Bluff in 1845.
At the time of his death tthe family consisted of himself, wife and two children, Amanda Jane, aged three years, and James, aged five months. Mrs. Miller was also present, .on a visit with her daughter.
The killing of Capt. Kemper by the Caranchuas occurred in November, 1845. About/ 3 o’clock in the afternoon the milch c.pws were seen running to the pen, pursued by a party of Indians. Capflain Kejmper, gun in hand, stepped outside the house and motioined them to desist?; their only reply was a volley .of arrows, one of which took effect, striking tlhe captain in the shoulder, back of the collar bone and passing out beneatlh the shoulder blade. H 87.


Burnet Cy cp McGill Murphy killed – 1
Ind Depr Wilbarger

July – Fort Larned – 1
Mrs. Dorothy Fields
Satanta began by leading a raid into the vicinity of Menard, in west Texas, where he and his warriors killed several whites and captured a Mrs. Dorothy Field. Returning to Fort Larned, the Kiowas held a scalp dance to celebrate the raid. When it ended, the Koiet-senko leader Satank and another Indian wandered over to the post, where they were warned away by the sentry. Not understanding, they continued on. The soldier raised his rifle, but before he could fire Satank shot two arrows into him and the other Kiowa fired a pistol. Soldiers and Indians both panicked; the Kiowas jumped on their horses, and the garrison rushed to prepare a defense. As they rode away, the Indians came upon the military horse herd grazing outside the post, stampeded it, and made off with most of the animals. The now-dismounted troopers were unable to pursue. A few days later, Satanta insolently sent a message to the post commander, complaining about the poor quality of the horses and hoping that in the future the army would provide better ones.

July 15 A Lane – 1
Alfred Lane Palo Pinto County, Texas
Alf Lane had been a member of Company G of the Frontier Regiment.
This company was stationed at Fort Belknap, and was commanded by Capt. Newt. White. Some of his comrades in the above company, who still alive, are and were under the impression that Alf was going home from Fort Belknap on a furlough, at the time he was assaulted by Indians. But Martin Lane, a son, and several other early frontiersmen, contended he was not going home from Belknap, on a furlough, but had been helping Charles Goodnight, his brother-in-law, move a herd of cattle to Elm Creek, near the line of Young and Throckmorton Counties.
Alf Lane, however, only went as far as old Fort Belknap. After hearing the evidence of both sides, the author became thoroughly satisfied that Martin Lane, and those who held his view, were correct.
This was the morning of July 15, 1864.
During the preceding night, Alf Lane had dreamed the Indians massacred some of his own people, so he drove rapidly on his fleet horse named “Driver.” It was, no doubt, due to this dream that this frontiersman turned back at Belknap. If so, it ensnared him into his own grave. For when he reached the Cement Mountain, about eleven miles east of old Fort Belknap. Alf Lane was ambushed and killed by Indians.
The above story is from the book, The West Texas Frontier, by Joseph Carroll McConnell.

Aug 9 – Ellison Springs Cpl Head – 3
The Texas Rangers: A Registry and History
Unknown Ranger (Co I, 2nd Front Dist) – Aug 9, 1864 – Ellison Springs Eastland County

Sept 13 – Salt Creek Prairi – Lt. Peveler – 1
The Texas Rangers: A Registry and History
Peveler, William R, Lt (Co G, Front Reg) – Sept 22, 1864 –
Salt Creek Prairie, Young County, Tex.
DOW inflicted Sept 13, 1864 – died at Flag Springs
Texas Lawmen, 1835-1899: The Good and the Bad p318

Oct 13 – Bragg Ranch, Ft Murray – Tex Border Reg – 5
The Texas Rangers: A Registry and History
Blue, Erastus, Pvt (Co D, Border Reg) – Oct. 13, 1864 – Bragg Ranch Young County
Jones, Sim, Sgt (Co D, Border Reg) – Oct. 13, 1864 – Bragg Ranch Young County
Neatherey, Robert, Pvt (Co D, Border Reg) – Oct. 13, 1864 – Bragg Ranch Young County
Snodgrass, Henry I, Pvt (Co D, Border Reg) – Oct. 13, 1864 – Bragg Ranch Young County
Walker, JG, Pvt (Co D, Young Border Reg) – Oct. 13, 1864 – Bragg Ranch Young County

Nov 25 – Adobe Walls – Col. Carson NM&Cav – 2/5


January 8 Dove Creek Captain Fosset – 26 – 35
The Handbook of Texas, Volume 1‎ – Pagina 517Walter Prescott Webb,
Texas State Historical Association – 1976
In a desperate battle the Texans were defeated, losing thirty-six killed with

July 4 – Frio English vs. Kickapoo – 3
The Trail drivers of Texas: interesting sketches of early cowboys and their
John Marvin Hunter
..the Indians made another raid in that section (Frio County) and Captain English, and ten men, overtook them where Dilley now stands. There a desperate engagement took place in which three of the white men were killed and six wounded.
Those killed were Dan Williams, John English and Dean Oden
Frio County Has a Colorful History
July 4, 1865, Indians chased Ed Burleson, but he managed to reach his home in safety.
The following neighbors started on the trail of the redmen: namely, Levi English, A. L. Franks, G. W. Daugherty, A. D. Aiken, Ed Burleson, W. C. Bell, Dean Oden, Bud English, John Berry, Frank and Dan Williams.
A fight ensued in which Dean Oden, Dan Williams and Bud English were killed.
Fight on the Frio, July 4, 1865 – [ Vertaal deze pagina ]door JS Ford – 1897 – Geciteerd door 1 – Verwante artikelen
ing men: Edward Burleson, Daniel Williams, B. Oden, Bud En- … The loss of the whites were three killed-Daniel Williams, Dean. Oden, and Bud English. … fight of July 4, 1865, the Indians lost six killed and thirteen wounded. …

June 12 – Ft Dodge – 2
Appended Compiation:
Det 2 US Volunteers
War of rebellion, 48-1, 312
On Monday morning, June 12 1865, the Indians….
made an attack on this post…
We had 3 men wounded and 2 captured or killed
Galvanized Yankees, by D Brown, p70

aug Ash Creek – 3

Appended Compilation of:
2 US Volunteers
The Galvanized Yankees, by D.Brown; p74-75:
Four soldiers on messenger detail to Ft Zarah were ambushed at Ash Creek.
One man escaped.


June 29 – Parker Cy minuteman Clark – 1
(Minuteman & Mounted Volunteer Units) 1823 – 1874
CLARK, ALVIN A.——Pvt. Co C Parker County Minutemen.
Killed in a fight with Indians, June 29, 1866.

October – Cedar Gap – militia – 1
Encyclopedia of Indian Wars 191:1


March 12 – Pecos River 4th Cav. Captain Wilcox – 4
Chronolgical List 1866-1891
March 12
Pecos River
4th Cav., det C
Capt. Wilcox
Killed: 25 Indians & 2 soldiers
Wounded: 2 soldiers
Encyclopedia of Indian Wars 1850-1890 p195
12 March 1867; Langtry, Texas: While camped on Live Oak Creek near the abandoned Fort Lancaster, Capt. John A. Wilcox and a detachment of Company C, 4th Cavalry, picked up the fresh trail of what appeared to be about 200 Indians. They followed it for four days, twisting through the hills west of the lower Pecos River. On 12 March, Wilcox overtook the Indians, burned their camp, and recovered one Mexican captive. The soldiers then had to make a fighting withdrawal as the Indians pursued them for 15 miles.
Four of Wilcox’s men were missing, presumed killed; guide Severino Patino was killed and five soldiers were wounded. Wilcox claimed to have killed between 25 and 40 Indians, but 10 is a more likely number.
Adjutant General’s Office, 26
Texas’ last frontier: Fort Stockton and the Trans-Pecos, 1861-1895‎ – Pagina 69
Captain John A. Wilcox, Company C, Fourth Cavalry, while camped near Live Oak Creek and the abandoned Fort Lancaster, picked up a fresh trail of what appeared to be about 200 Indians. They followed it for four four days to the hills west of the Pecos.

Upon overtaking the Indians on March 12, he engaged them in a running fight that that
lasted for four hours and about fifteen miles.
Wilcox reported that he had four men missing in action, five wounded, and a guide killed and that forty Indians had been killed and a number wounded
Pagina 73
Captain Wilcox, commanding at Fort Clark, was about to depart on an expedition
… now in strong numbers in a village on the Pecos River, about ninety miles from the Fort
Pagina 130
According to Edgar, a Captain Wilcox, Ninth Cavalry (apparently John Andrew Wilcox, Fourth Cavalry)
with a company of cavalrymen followed …
Rio Grande and attacked their camp but was forced to retreat by the Indians, …
The old Army in Texas: a research guide to the U.S. Army in nineteenth
soldier was listed as missing in action and one civilian guide (Serverino Patino) was killed.
Two soldiers were wounded and ten Indians were killed

J Coldwell Tex Ranger – 1
Fort Tours Nocona’s Blood Trail
In 1867, a group of citizens/Rangers was out scouting when they struck an
Indian trail and followed it a few miles west of the town of Perrin where they
encountered an overwhelming force of warriors and engaged them in a fight.
Among the Rangers, Jack Coldwell was killed immediately and Sam Leonard
was paralyzed by wounds received in the neck.
Part of the group wanted to retreat, but J. W. Miller and a few others insisted
on making a stand. Confronted with the Rangers’ fire, the Indians scattered.
Leonard soon recovered.
Jack Coldwell, Parker County, Texas
About 1867, Jack Coldwell, Sam Leonard, J.W. Miller, C.G. Cogbourne, Frank Smith, and perhaps a few others, while out scouting, struck an Indian trail somewhere in the northern part of Parker County.
This trail was followed several miles west and the Indians encountered not far from the Parker-Palo Pinto-Wise County line. A running fight followed. But in a short time some of the citizens “shot out,” and their captain ordered them to fall back. When they did, the savages turned on the whites. Since the Indians had such overwhelming numbers, in a short time considerable confusion arose, and the whites almost stampeded. Jack Coldwell was killed. Sam Leonard received a paralyzing wound in his shoulder and neck, causing him to fall from his horse. J.W. Miller said that he was going to remain with Leonard, but it seems the captain insisted that they go for the thought Leonard had been killed. But Miller insisted he was going to stay, so a few citizens remained. When they stopped, the Indians turned and went the other way. In a short time, Leonard stated that he could hear, but was paralyzed and could not speak. He wanted to tell his comrades not to leave him. Leonard soon recovered. The citizens made a serious mistake when they retreated.
The above story is from the book, The West Texas Frontier, by Joseph Carroll McConnell.

Aug 22 nr Ft Chadbourne Jenkins 4Cv – 2
Chr. List.
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
Moroney John 07/11 1866 Philadelphia, PA Kilkenny Soldier 28.000
Blue Dark Fair 5′ 6 3/4″ D 4 Cav. Private Killed in Action Indians
Mountain Pass Texas 08/22 1867 40 miles from Ft. Chadbourne.

23 aug nr Ft Concho 4C ChrL – 1

30 aug nr Ft Belknap lt Schreyer 6C ChrL – 2

1 oct Howards Well crp Wright 9C ChrL – 2
Standing in the gap: army outposts, picket stations, and the pacification of p46
In October, during an Indian attack, D Company lost 2 enlisted men
escorting mail near Fort Lancaster.

26 dec nr Ft Lancaster cp Frohock 9C ChrL – 3


Aug. 14 – Sulphur Springs 6th Cav. Desperadoes/ Indians? – (2)
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
Creery Edward 09/18 1866 Philadelphia, PA Tyrone Co. Soldier
29.000 Blue Dark Dark 5′ 7 1/4″ H 6 Cav. 1st Sergeant Killed in
Action Desperadoes Sulphur Springs Texas 08/14 1868 ER indicates
he was killed by Indians.
Miller John 04/03 1866 Philadelphia, PA Londonderry Soldier 25.000
Blue Brown Fair 5′ 7 1/2″ H 6 Cav. Private DOWR-In Action Desperadoes
Sulphur Springs Texas 08/14 1868 ER indicates he was killed by Indians.

3 sept nr Ft Dodge – 4

Defense of the Kansas Frontier 1868-1869by Marvin H. Garfield
The Indians in September resumed their depredations in earnest.
Comanches and Kiowas made a dash at Fort Dodge on September 3,killing
Four soldiers and wounding seventeen before being driven off.

30 oct 1868 Denton C – volunteer Ft tours – 1

Dec 25 – Elm Creek Major Evans 3Cv – 2


7 june Pecos Rv cl McKenzie 4C ChrL – 1
Johnson Draw
7 June 1869; Juno, Texas: In the spring of 1869, Fort McKavett was headquarters of the 41st Infantry, a black regiment under Col. Ranald S. Mackenzie. On 19 May, Mackenzie rode out with a scout of two lieutenants and 42 men from detachments of Companies G, L, and M, 9th Cavalry, along with a few civilians and two guides. About 50 miles from the mouth of the Pecos River, the company fell upon a party of Indians and scattered them in the first charge. The Indians fled south toward the Rio Grande; the soldiers’ weary horses could not keep up a pursuit.
One enlisted man and two Indians were killed in the skirmish.
Encyclopedia of Indian Wars


January nr Fort Griffin private 24th Infantry – 1
A Texas frontier: the Clear Fork Country and Fort Griffin, 1849-1887 p 299
January place not listed unnamed enlisted men of 24th Infantry killed
Fifth Military District
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Following are a summary of U.S. Cavalry/Infantry activities in the 5th Military District of Texas from January 1866 to April 1870 – such as in pursuit of Native Americans and outlaws based on Official Reports and the 6th US Cavalry Regimental History and deaths/injuries to soldiers in the Fifth Military District.
1870 January:
23rd—Fort Griffin—Pvt Jackson Tolliver—Co E 24th USCI—two gunshot wounds—died of wound {Surgical Report.p. 41}
On the trail of the buffalo soldier II: new and revised biographies of ..p294
Tollover, Jackson, Private, E 24th Inf.
Died at Fort Griffin, Texas, on 23 January 1870;
buried at San Antonio National Cemetery
“A report of surgical cases treated in the army of the United States from 1865 to 1871”
Private Jackson Tolliver, Co. E, 24th United States Infantry, aged 21 years, received on January 23, 1870, at Fort Griffin, Texas, two gunshot wounds. One was an inch below and a quarter of an inch external to the inferior angle of the right scapula; the other in the posterior part of the middle third of the right leg. The patient was admitted to the post hospital, and one missile was
extracted from near the eusiform cartilage, and another from the muscles of the inner portion of the calf. The patient recovered from shock four hours after reception of injury, and seemed to be doing well until half past 11 at night, when internal haemorrhage occurred, and death ensued shortly afterward. At the autopsy, the thoracic cavity was found to contain about one and a half pints of blood. After penetrating the diaphragm, the ball had pierced the upper part of the. right lobe of the liver, and, taking an upward course, had buried itself under the skin, near the ensiform cartilage ; the lower edge of the seventh rib was fractured, and the lower part of the inferior lobe of the right lung was perforated.

February – Brown Cy, Hog Creek – civilians posse – 1
Inventory of the county archives of Texas : Brown County, no. 25 p16
February 1870 Hog Creek Fight 1 white killed of residents (Havins History 49-58)
The West Texas Frontier
Citizens Pursue Indians Who Assault Capt. Roach and Others at the Mustang Water Hole
…Dave Cunningham was elected captain, James Milligan, “dogman,” to look after the bloodhounds, and the following additional citizens were present: Freeman Clark, Joel Nabers, Wm. Cunningham, Joe Cunningham, J. Johnson, a Methodist minister, Sam Powers, a Baptist minister, Wm. Ross, Dan Pinkard, Ike Ward, J.W. Terrell, Tom Jones, Ed Roach, John W. Stephens, Larkin Stone, Billy Cox and about six others, making a total of twenty-three men.
Near the head springs of Hog Creek, twenty-three citizens came upon fifty-two Indians, about three o’clock in the evening. The Indians only had three or four houses, and were mostly afoot. Capt. Dave Cunningham and his men formed a line and charged.
But the fight only lasted a few minutes. The Indians made a hasty retreat, after three of their number had been killed. A savage shot Joel Naber’s horse, and then the same Indian shot and killed Freeman Clark.

May 14 Mount Adams Tx, 4th Cav. Lt. Wm. Russell – 1
Wiki: Fifth Military District (2/2)
1870 May 14th—Mount Adam, Lampases—Brevet Major William Russell—
a 2nd Lt 4th US Cavalry—shot by Indians; died May 15, 1870
William Russell May 1870 Travis Tx age unk b unk, killed by Indians, soldier

May 29 Bass Canon; Lt Trask 9thC – 1

30 may Holliday Cr Lt Walter 6C – 3
From Yorktown to Santiago with the sixth US Cavalry
The Indians grew more bold in 1870, and began to operate over a wide extent of country. Lieu-
tenant I. M. Walters, who was out with a detachment, encountered a band of marauding Indians
on May 30th and fought them with a loss of one soldier and two citizens killed.

Ft. Tours
Lieutenant I.N. Walker Wichita County, Texas
Company C & D, Ninth U.S. Cavalry; Lt. I.N. Walter in command,
had one trooper and two citizens killed on May 30th on Holiday Creek.

Professor Roessler’s Escort Wichita County, Texas

On May 29, 1870 a scout or military escort, some ten or twenty strong, Professor Roessler, who was exploring the mineral resources of Archer, Wichita and other counties, was ambushed and attacked on the headwaters of Holiday Creek, a tributary of the Big Wichita by some forty or more Indians believed by the officers of the escort to have come from the Oklahoma reservation. They were well clothed in Indian style and were armed almost with firearms; no arrows were used in the attack.

Fort Tour Systems, Inc.

The old Army in Texas: a research guide to the U.S. Army in nineteenth …‎ – Pagina 151
door Thomas T. Smith – 2000 – 255 pagina’s

April 3, 1870: Capt. Wirt Davis and a detachment of Company F, Fourth Cavalry,

Two Indians were killed.

April 5, 1870: A sergeant and a detachment of Company H
Ninth Cavalry, had a skirmish at San Martin Springs. One Indian was killed …

May 14, 1870: A detachment of Company M, Fourth Cavalry, had a skirmish at Mount

May 29, 1870: A detachment of Company K, Ninth Cavalry, from Fort Quitman had a
skirmish at Bass Canyon.

May 30, 1870: Lt. …
… N. Walter with detachments of Companies C and D, Sixth Cavalry, from Fort Richardson,
and a Professor Rossler of the Geological Survey

The Indian trial: the complete story of the Warren Wagon Train massacre and …‎ – Pagina 43
door Charles M. Robinson – 1997 – 203 pagina’s

About the same time, a Professor Roessler, geologist from the Interior Department, left Fort Richardson with an escort of Sixth Cavalry and several citizens of Jacksboro and Weatherford,
to investigate some reported copper deposits about a hundred miles to the northwest.
As the party neared its destination, it was attacked. A soldier and two civilians were killed.

On July 11, a scouting expedition of ….
men from Fort Richardson under command of Captain Curwin McClellan was attacked in a valley along the Little Wichita, by some 250 agency Kiowas. …
McClellan dismounted to get the advantage of stability in gunfire over the Indian horsemen then began a

Sentinel of the southern plains: Fort Richardson and the northwest Texas …‎ – Pagina 54
door Allen Lee Hamilton – 1988 – 251 pagina’s

Late in May a force of twenty enlisted men under Lieutenant Sumner H. Bodfish departed
Richardson for scouting purposes.
They were accompanied by a Professor Roessler from the Geological Survey of the of the
Department of the Interior and five

…On May 30, the expedition was attacked near Holliday Creek in Archer County by about forty Kiowas who killed two of the citizens, Ben Dawdrick and Joseph Taylor, and one soldier, Private Harry …

The attackers were finally beaten off, and the exhausted troopers and the stunned civilians staggered back to Fort Richardson

Standing in the gap: army outposts, picket stations, and the pacification of …‎ – Pagina 96
door Loyd Uglow – 2001 – 234 pagina’s

… One post that did see permanent duty began in May 1870, when James Oakes,
… north-central counties, and providing escort to a Professor Roessler …

May 31 – Bear Creek – 1-2
Chronological List of actions:
May 31 Bear Cr, Kans, 3 Inf (mailguard), serg Murray,
killed: 2 enl. m. (& 5 wounded)
Record of Engagements with Hostile Indians, p 27:
One killed and one wounded
Fort Supply, Indian Territory, by Carriker p49-50:
Fort Dodge/Camp Supply Road
Known as Soldiers’ Graves, the redoubt was in honor of two soldiers, John Conniston and August Buck, who were killed and buried there May 1, 1870
About Ashland
On February 3, 1870, the U.S. Army placed soldiers half way on the military trail between Ft. Dodge, KS and Camp Supply in Indian Territory due to the threat of Indian attacks on supply wagons. Bear Creek Mail Station, a sod house constructed on the east side of the creek, was the first habitation in what became Ashland. It was called “Soldiers Graves” after an attack on May 30th when an angry group of Kiowa braves attacked the Mail Station and killed two soldiers.
Irish Deaths In the Frontier Army
Connerton John B 3 Inf. Private Killed in Action Indians Bear Creek Mail Station Kansas 05/30 1870 “Killed by Hostile Indians while on D.S. guarding mail station.” Bear Creek Station was on the Ft. Dodge road.
June 1 – mails station north Camp Supply; 3rd Infantry – 2
Plains Indian raiders P160
Although it was not known at Camp Supply until several days later,
the Indians who had visited the train near the Cimmarron rode from
there to a mail station 45 miles north of Camp Supply.
The station was guarded by a sergeant and four privates of the 3rd
Infantry, who had not heard of the outbreak, and thus were not
alarmed when Indians entered the building and asked and asked for
something to eat.
They were given food, but the two soldiers in the room sat on sacks
containing other rations, to prevent the Indians from snatching them.
The men did not have their rifles in hand because they anticipated
no trouble.
Suddenly the Indians shot and killed them.
The sergeant who was outside trying to carry on a conversation with
the other Indians, who had dismounted and tied their horses.
On hearing the shots, the sergeant rushed inside but was met by a
burst of fire and fell with seven wounds.

July 12 – Little Wichita – 3
The West Texas Frontier
Capt. McLellan and Men Fight Indians About Six or Nine Miles
Northeast of the Present Town of Archer City
July 7, 1870, Capt. McLellan, in command of approximately sixty soldiers, left Ft. Richardson, at Jacksboro, for a scouting expedition.
After traveling many miles, and killing no Indians, the cavalrymen came upon Dave Terrell’s cow outfit, camped about two miles east of the present town of Jean, in Young County. Capt. McLellan told the cowmen that he didn’t think there were any Indians. But he was assured by the citizens, the savages were not all gone. J. B. Terrell,
Scroggins, Bob Durrett, Pat Sanders, Price Bird; Geo. Terrell, numbered among the cowmen, who first thought the soldiers were Indians.
The cavalrymen proceeded on their scouting expedition, and during the morning of July 11, the advance guard discovered two hundred and fifty warriors in a valley, only a short distance away. When Capt. McLellan saw the Indians were going to assume the offensive and charge the soldiers, he ordered his cavalrymen to dismount. Because
of their superior horsemanship, the Indians invariably preferred fighting from their steeds, and always elected to met the enemy mounted on horses.
The results of the encounter were related by H. H. McConnell in his Five Years a Cavalryman, as follows:
“On came the Indians, the prairie literally covered with them, having apparently divided into three parties of perhaps one hundred each, one party fighting at a time, the others hovering on the flanks of our men, and relieving each other in the main attack. Capt. McLellan retreated slowly, the man fighting between the horses, which were led by the fourth file of each flank, leaving three-fourths of the men disengaged. The heat was intense under the July sun, and no water, and for about eight hours of the long summer day the soldiers slowly retreated and fought the overwhelming odds, until the approach of night and the proximity of a considerable stream deterred the Indians from continuing the pursuit.
Two soldiers were killed and left where they fell, and fourteen others, including Dr. Hatch, the surgeon, were wounded.
Some of them very severely; and eighteen of the cavalry horses were killed and abandoned in the fight, besides some of the pack animals.
The loss inflicted on the Indians, was, of course, never ascertained, but was known at the time to have been
considerable, and was so admitted by them afterward at Fort Sill, when Capt. McLellan passed through that post on our march to Kansas.”
For fear of an attack, the cowmen gathered in at old Fort Belknap and placed their favorite horses in the rock stable. That night, when some soldiers arrived from this expedition, again they thought they were Indians, and ordered a halt, but the cavalrymen replied that they were soldiers. The cowmen then suggested, “Then if you are soldiers, two
of you meet two of us,” and they did.
Capt. McLellan and his men, are deserving of the highest praise for if they had not encountered the Indians when they did, these 250 savages may have made a major raid somewhere on the upper settlements, equal to the Big Young County Raid. On this occasion, practically all of the Indians were well armed with high-powered rifles.
Note: Author interviewed: J. B. Terrell, mentioned above; Hen Williams, Mann Johnson; A. M. Lasater; Mrs. Ed Wohlfforth; and others.
Further Ref.: Five Years a Cavalryman, by H. H. McConnell, who was a cavalryman at Ft. Richardson at the time.

Aug – Washita River – 2

Sept 30 – nr Ft Concho 4th C – 1

Dec 6 – Leona River – 3
Joe Rief, of Capt. Richarz’s rangers, 6 miles west of Sabinal Creek on El Paso road;
Frontier Battalion Rangers
BIETIGER, LORENZO— Pvt. in Co E Frontier Forces
killed December 6, 1870. Killed in a fight with Indians.
RIFF, JOSEPH—- Pvt. in Co E Killed
Killed by Indians near the Leona River, December 6, 1870.
RICHARZ, WALTER—-Pvt. in Co E Frontier Forces
Killed in a fight with Indians between Ft. Inge and the Leona River, December 6, 1870.

1870 Johnson City rangers Ft T – 1

Dec. 21 Nortrh Llano River – 9th Cavalry – 1
On the Trail of the Buffalo Soldier p51
July 1870 at Fort McKavett.
Carpenter, Allen; private; 9th Cavalry
Killed by Indians while hunting on North Llano River, Tx, 21 Dec. 1870.
source: History of the 9th Cavalry, Hamilton

Dec 27 – Frontier Rangers – 1
Frontier Battalion Rangers
SWIFT, A.M.—-Pvt. in Co F Frontier Forces
Killed in a fight with Indians, December 27, 1870


nr Ft. Larned? 3rd Inf. – 1
Cemetery List:
Whitson, Franklin Pvt C 3rd US Inf
Wounds from Indian fight Jan 7 1872

19 sept Foster Spr cp Van de Wiele 10c ChrL – 1

Oct 11 – Brazos Riverv Col. McKenzie – 1
History Crosby County
Pvt. Seander Gregg, U.S. 4th Cavalry, killed 10-11-1871 by
Quanah Parker in Battle of Blanco Canyon.


Jan. 7 nr Ft. Larned? 3rd Inf. – 1
Fort Reno D. T. Post Cemetery Register
Whitson, Franklin Pvt C 3rd US Inf Wounds From Indian Fight January 7, 1872
The Historical Marker Database Dedicated to the Soldiers who died while serving their country at Fort Larned, Kansas (1859-1878). In 1888, remains were relocated from the post cemetery to Fort Leavenworth National Cemetery, Section B, wehre they were not identified. Among the men who perished at or near Fort Larned and whose remains may now be buried at Fort Leavenworth are: Franklin Whitson, Pvt.

20 april Howard Mill cp Cooney 9Cv – 9Cv – 2

22 may Ft Dodge 6C CHrL, Ft Supply – 1/2

May 24 Lost Creek 4th Cav Capt. Heyl – 1
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
Hinchey Lawrence 03/11 1869 New York, NY Limerick Soldier
32.000 Blue Brown Fair 5′ 8 1/4″ K 4 Cav. Private DOWR-In
Action Indians Ft. Richardson Texas 05/25 1872 “May 24, 1872,
Cos. A and K under command of Capt. E. M. Heye 4th Cavalry
while in Camp at Lost Valley, Texas were attacked by Indians,
one man wounded, died the next day and one horse killed.
The Indians were repulsed-loss unknown.”

Sept 29 – Red River Colonel McKenzie 4Cav – 2
Irish deaths in the Frontier Army
Dooras John 11/21 1870 New York, NY Longford / Langford? Soldier 25.000
Gray Light Fresh 5′ 7 1/4″ F 4 Cav.
Private Killed in Action Indians North Fork Red River Texas 09/29 1872
Kelly John 05/01 1871 Pittsburg, PA Wexford Clerk 22.000 Grey Brown Fair 5′ 6 1/2″ F 4 Cav.
Private DOWR-In Action Indians Kelly’s Creek Texas 10/11 1872 Wounded on 09/29.
A Texas frontier: the Clear Fork Country and Fort Griffin, 1849-1887
Private John Kelly (4th Cavalry) on the North Fork of the Red River on September 29, 1872,
and Private John Dooras, who died of wounds received on September 29, 1872


18 may Remolina cl McKenzie 4Cv Texonline4C – 1

Oct – Spring Creek Ranger Hazelwood – 1
The Joy’s of Johnson Fork
From: “It Occurred in Kimble”
by O.C. Fisher, 1937
Peter Hazlewood, who in a fight with a band of Indians on Spring Creek
in 1873 was shot through the head and killed.
Hazelwood had been slain by Indians in a confrontation in October, 1873.
Herrin & McDonald Families
Texas Rangers Dedication and new Headstones unveiled at Spring Creek
Our thanks to the Spring Creek Cemetery Volunteers.


April Ft Concho Carbine&Lance 189 – 1

July 12 Lost Valley Texas Rangers – 2/3
Wilbarger’s Indian Depredations in Texas
Major John B. Jones
Bailey and Glass killed, Conn and Moore wounded
Encyclopedia of Indian Wars 280: 2

Sept 9 – Wichita River Capt. Lyman 5InfI&6C – 1
Find a Grave
DeArmond, William [cenotaph] b. 1838 d. September 9, 1874
Indian Wars Congressional Medal of Honor Recipient. He served during the wars with the Plains Indians as a Sergeant in Company 1, 5th United States Infantry. He was awarded his medal posthumously for action at Upper Washita, Texas, on September 9 to 11, 1874. His citation reads simply “Gallantry in action”. It was awarded on April 23, 1875.
San Antonio National Cemetery, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, USA

Sept 11/12 McClellan Creek Cl Miles 6Cav M – 1/ 2
Find a Grave
Smith, George b. 1848 d. September 13, 1874
Indian Wars Congressional Medal of Honor Recipient. He served as a Private in Company M, 6th US Cavalry. On September 12, 1874, the third day of a siege in which a force of more than 100 Indians surrounded and attacked the Lyman Supply Train at the at Washita River, Texas, General Nelson Miles sent a detachment of six troopers to deliver a dispatch to Camp Supply for re-enforcements. While en-route the six men were attacked by 125 Indians and Private Smith was one of four men immediately…[Read More] (Bio by: John “J-Cat” Griffith)
San Antonio National Cemetery, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, USA

Sept 28 Palo Duro Canyon Cl. McKenzie – 1
Encyclopedia of Indian Wars 286: 1

Nov 6 – McClellan Creek Lt Farnsworth 8C – 2
Ft Supply 104: 1


April 6 – near Cheyenne Agency – 1/2
Chronological List of actions:
Apr 6 Ch Agency, I.T., 6 Cv, M; 10Cv,DM, 5Inf, H
LtCol Neill wounded: 19
Ft Supply, IT, by Carriker p 105:
(Cheyennes), .. one of whome later died…
Peace prevailed until spring, but on April 6, 1875, Troop M was engaged near the Cheyenne Agency from 3 P. M. until dark with about 150 Cheyennes. Nine Indians were killed, four soldiers wounded, and nine troop horses killed or wounded.
BUFFALO SOLDIERS One trooper was killed and sixteen wounded of Troop D and three wounded and one killed in Troop M.
Cheyenne & Arapaho, the Indian Scouts, and the Indian Wars
The Battle of Sand Hill in April of 1875 a few miles north of the Fort, was the only military battle near the Fort. Near the Cheyenne village, the soldiers and a blacksmith were attempting to shackle prisoner Black Horse. He was being chided by the Cheyenne women, so he kicked loose from his captors and broke and ran toward the village. The soldiers gave chase, then shot and killed him, but some of their bullets went through the lodges (teepees). The wary Cheyennes, believing they were under attack, crossed the river to the sandy hills and dug up their cached weapons and occupied rifle pits they had excavated. The soldiers responded in force. A pitched battle ensued, including a repulsed cavalry charge, and the fort’s Gattling Gun was brought into the battle.
Before it ended, one enlisted man (Clark Young, a Buffalo Soldier), one civilian, and one Indian scout died as result of Sand Hill and are buried in the historic cemetery located 3/4 mile west of the Fort Reno Visitor Center. 19 soldiers were wounded, and six Cheyenne warriors and one woman were killed.
On the Trail of the Buffalo Soldier p 345
Young, Clark, M, 10th Cavalry
killed in action at the Cheyenne Agency, IT, April 6 1875 (The Buffalo Soldiers, 139)
Died of wounds (CO, 10Cav to AG, June 18 1875)
Died 12 April (Regimental Returns)

Sept 19 near Fort Chadbourne – 1
History of Runnels County
The last person killed by Indians in the Runnels area was
W. H. Brown, a Texas Ranger, who was shot by Comanches
near Fort Chadbourne on September 19, 1875.


July 30 – Saragossa 10th Cav. Lt. Bullis – 0
Encyclopedia of Indian Wars 298 : 3 men lost
Texas’ last frontier: Fort Stockton and the Trans-Pecos, 1861-1895
Clayton Williams, Ernest Wallace – 1982 – 457 pagina’s – Fragmentweergave
Bullis had only 3 men killed. After recovering about 150 horses, Bullis and his men headed north. … 1876. 9U.S. Department of War, Post Surgeons Report, Fort Davis, May. 1876
The Buffalo Soldiers: A Narrative of the Black Cavalry in the West 152 : 3 wounded

Black, buckskin, and blue: African American scouts and soldiers on the …‎ – Pagina 99
Arthur T. Burton – 1999
The American soldiers killed fourteen of the Indian warriors and captured four
women and one hundred horses.
The black soldiers received only slight wounds from Lipan lances. The soldiers destroyed the village and rejoined the main column which returned safely to Texas. For this action in Mexico, Bullis was brevetted to Major. …

Dec. 29 Seco Canyon Phillips Sheriff – 1
Fort Tours Bandera County
Marker Text: A Bandera County Deputy Sheriff, Capt. Jack Phillips, set
out alone on Dec. 29, 1876, on an official visit to Sabinal Canyon. Indians
attacked him at Seco Canyon Pass, 22 miles southwest of Bandera.
Phillips raced for the nearest settlement. When his horse was shot from
under him, he ran for half a mile before being killed. A mail carrier and
a couple on their way to the county seat to be married found his body later
that day. Ironically, the Indians had been trailed for many miles by Texas
Rangers who had turned back in exhaustion just before Phillips was waylaid.
Texas Ranchers Indian War Pensions
Weaver’s service in the Bandera County Company was
continuous from 1875 to about 1878; the command of the
unit was assumed by F.L. Hicks after Captain Phillips
was killed by Indians in December, 1876
Texas Lawmen, 1835-1899: The Good and the Bad, p19


March 4 – Yellow House Canyon expedition hunters – 1
The buffalo soldier tragedy of 1877 p33
Joe Jackson

May 4 – Lake Quemado Corp. Lee 10th C. – 1
Texas Frontier a Clear Fork p298
The buffalo soldier tragedy of 1877 p35
Captain Lee Troop G 10th Cav. Left Fort Griffin with 6 Tonkawa scouts and 72 men of his command.
…on May 4, 1877, he and his troopers found and charged the missing Comanches at Silver Lake
(Laguna Plata, sometimes called Lake Quemado or simply Quemos), far out on the Llano Estacado.
They killed four Indians in the attack and captured 6 women and 69 horses.
They suffered one death themselves: First Sergeant Charles Baker
Lake Quemado
4 May 1877; Morton, Texas: While the buffalo hunters tried to go after the renegade Comanches, the U.S. Cavalry was also on their trail. On 9 April, Capt. Phillip L. Lee and 42 buffalo soldiers of Company G, 10th Cavalry, along with about 70 scouts rode out of Fort Griffin. About 50 miles northwest of the site of the Yellow House fight, west of Silver Lake in present-day Cochran County, Lee came across Black Horse’s Comanches.
The Indians were surprised, and Lee chased them about eight miles into the sand hills, then returned to destroy their tipis and supplies. In the fight, Sgt. Charles Cutler was mortally wounded. At least four Comanches were killed trying to get away, and several women and children are believed to have been killed, though Lee made no mention of it in his report. He captured six women and 69 horses.
On their return to Fort Griffin, the troopers rode past Rath’s store, where Lee told the buffalo hunters that they had killed over 30 Indians at Yellow House Canyon, though few believed it.
A Texas frontier: the Clear Fork Country and Fort Griffin, 1849-1887
During the brief uprising in 1877, Comanches killed Charles Butler on May 4 (10th Cav) on Lake Quemado


Jan 2 – nr Ft McKavitt Mc Carty – 1
Texas Rangers Austin
Private Timothy J. (Tim) McCarty
Texas Rangers, TX
EOW: Wednesday, January 2, 1878
Cause of Death: Gunfire

Aug 10 Texas Rangers – 1
Texas Rangers Austin
Private A. A. Ruzin
Texas Rangers, TX
EOW: Saturday, August 10, 1878
Texas Lawmen, 1835-1899: The Good and the Badp336


June 29 Anglin Ranger – 1
Texas Rangers Austin
Private William B. Anglin
Texas Rangers, TX
EOW: Sunday, June 29, 1879
Cause of Death: Gunfire
Texas Lawmen, 1835-1899: The Good and the Badp336


SOUTHTWEST 1846-1887


Nov 26 nr Socorro – 2
Crimson Desert p43:
Indian raiders drove off 17 goverm. Mules and approx. 800 sheep.
Two soldiers (Missouri Mounted Volunteers), Privates J. Stewart
and R Spears, were told to recover the sheep. Their bodies were
found later just 6 miles from the river.
See Doniphan’s Expedition
Navajo Timeline:
Nov 28 – At his camp near Valverde on the lower Rio Grande,
Lt. J. W. Abert reported: “We heard, this morning, of the death of
the volunteers who were encamped near us. These men had gone off
from camp five or six miles without any weapons, when they were
attacked by the Navajoes, who shot them down with reed arrows,
and then beat out their brains with rocks; and the Indians drove off 800 sheep. A party of 300 immediately went out in pursuit of the murderers.
By the last advices they had not overtaken them”.

Compare data from Appended Compilation:
1846, Oct 26-29, On Chihuahua Road, out from Santa Fe,
skirmish with 70 Navajo Indians Det G&I, 1 Dragoons


Aug near Santa Fe? – 2
Navajo Timeline
Santa Fe Weekly Gazette
Col. A. W. Doniphan made a hollow peace with the Navajos,
took their promises for things, the performance of which he
was ordered, and should have required on the spot. And in
consequence, before Col. D.’s command had fairly retired from
their country two of his men were killed by the Indians


Spring – Cumbres Pass; Reynolds – 3
Mountain men and fur traders of the Far West, p214:
….as scout and guide for Major W. W. Reynolds in a military campaign, starting from Taos, against a large band of Ute and Apache raiders who had been harassing the northern New Mexican settlements.
The Indians were followed to Cumbres Pass in the southern extremity of the San Juan Mountains, where a fierce battle resulted in the rout of the Indians, after 36 of them and 2 soldiers killed and many on both side wounded
National Intelligencer Newspaper Abstracts, 1848
Late from Santa Fe, Aug 1.
Our volunteer troops had another severe fight with the Apaches & Eutaws on July 18.
They were pursued beyond the Ratone mountains by Captain Roake, of the Missouri Mounted Regt. & 60 men. The Indians retreated, leaving behind some 32 head of horses & mules.
Major Reynolds followed with 150 men, joined the advance with Williams, Fisher, Mitchell, and Kirker, mountaineers, as guides, continued the pursuit, and came up with a detachment of some 400 Indians.
A fight ensued, the Indians retreating, leaving 25 of their number dead in the field.
Two of our men were killed & 6 wounded.
Capt Salmon, and Old Bill Williams, the mountaineer, were wounded
3d Regiment of Missouri Mounted Volunteers, for during the war with Mexico — received July 47 ; disbanded October 48.
Benjamin Salmon, Fst It to July 47 ; mort. around, by Apaches 23 July and James I. Clarkson. | died 19 Nov. 48).
Benjamin Salmon 1808-1848 by DAVID L ATEN
Looking for information on Benjamin Salmon 1808 – 1848.
He died in Taos, New Mexico from wounds sustained with battle with Mexicans/Indians at Wagon Mound. Battle was in July and he died in November.
Posted by: William Olson (ID *****3337) Date: March 01, 2006 at 15:02:37
In Reply to: Benjamin Salmon 1808-1848 by DAVID L ATEN of 1570
David..I am a descendant of Benjamin.through his son Henry.
I too have tried to find his burial location. As you may know, he was mortally wounded in a
battle with a band of 400 Apaches at Wagon Mound, NM and taken to hospital at San Fernandez
De Taos, where he died on Nov 19th, 1848.


March 13 – El Cetro del Oqa Lt Whittlesley 1st Dr – 2
Forgotten Fights
El Cerro de la Olla
March 13, 1849; Cerro, New Mexico: Until 1849, the Utes had remained generally peaceful with the white trappers and traders in what is now northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Early that year the Arapahos defeated the Utes in a devastating battle on the plains, destroying many of their livestock. To recoup their losses, the Utes began stealing stock from Mexican settlements in the Taos area. In March Lt. Joseph H. Whittlesey, stationed in Santa Fe, was ordered to chastise the guilty Utes.

Whittlesey gathered fifty-seven men from Companies G and I of the First Dragoons and marched north, guided by frontiersmen Bill Williams, Charles Autobees, Asa Estes, and others. A short distance from Santa Fe, the scouts located a fifty-lodge Ute village near the 9,475-foot peak known as Cerro de la Olla, ten miles west of present Cerro, New Mexico. Whittlesey attacked the village, killing ten warriors, capturing three women and children, and destroying the lodges and supplies. Two dragoons were killed in the fight.

The defeated village was left even more destitute than before. The Indians claimed they would make a reparation for the stolen stock at some point in the future. Later that month, the Utes exacted some revenge by killing “Old Bill” Williams in the Colorado Rockies.”

Aug 16 San Diego Cp Steen 1 Dragoons – 1
National Intelligencer Newspaper Abstracts, 1850 p 208
One man was killed, Corp. A.E. Norwood, of Co. H of the 1st Dragoons

June? Guadalupe Mountains – 2
Opening Routes to El Paso, 1849
upon the practicability of a Route from Austin
to El Paso del Norte *
Two Companies of the 3d Infantry came out from El Paso and escorted Coon’s train to this side the Guadalupe Mountains.
Capt. Johns, on his way from El Paso, just this side of the Guadalupe mountains, lost two men, killed by the Indians – – – Soloman Garner and John Woodley.


April 23 Ferry Colorado Rv.,Glanton merceneries – 11
Dig here!: Lost Mines and buried treasures of the Southwestp159:
As the drunken white men lay drunken sleeping off their spreethe
Indians struck with vengeance in a suprise attack.
Having no opportunity to escape or defend themselves, the 11 Americans were killed, including Glanton an Lincoln.

May Wagon Mound escort mail party – 10

June 26 – nr Rayado – 1
Fort Union:
The Jicarillas continued to raid. On June 26, 1850,
a party of from 250 to 300 drove off a large number of
livestock near Rayado and killed two citizens and a soldier.

July 26 – Canadian River, Captain Grier – 1
Compilation Indian Engagements, 1837-1866, Army War College
July 26, Canadian Rv, 1 Drag: C&I; 2 Drag: K
Killed: 1 enlisted man
Fort Union:
.. Captain Grier led 78 dragoons and about 90 armed citizens
from Mora and Rayado on an expedition against the Jicarillas
on July 23. After a three-day march…… they found a large Jicarilla
camp approximately 100 miles north of Rayado. The Indians had
been warned of the approaching troops and were attempting to escape.
In a running fight the dragoons killed and wounded several warriors,
and recovered some of the stolen livestock.
Captain Grier reported one dragoon killed, Sergeant Lewis V. Guthrie
The United States postal guide and official advertiser, Volumes 1-2
Brevet Major W. N. Grier, with three companies of Dragoons, and about ninety Mexicans, volunteers for the occasion, marched from Rayado, New Mexico, on the 23d July, moving northerly along the base of the Mountains, and up the Verniego, thence across the head waters of the Canadian River.
At noon, on the 25th, the command came upon a small party of Indians, all of whom were either killed or wounded, and their animals captured; and, in the evening, the Mexicans, in advance as apies, surprised another party, killed one or two of them, and captured seven animals.
The next day, (July 26th,) the command came upon the main village, situated on the edge of a mountain, in a thick and almost impenetrable growth of aspens. The Indiana had removed their families, and, on the approach of the troops, abandoned their camp, and fled towards the “Spanish Peaks.” In the pursuit five or six Indians were killed or wounded, and of the troops, Sergt. Lewis V. Guthrie, was mortally wounded and died next day. The total loss of the Indians was six killed and five or six wounded. Sixty horses and mules, eighty head of cattle, one hundred and fifty sheep, with a quantity of provisions and camp material were captured.
31st Congress

74 -75

We marched again at night, and the next day (July 2G)^until 1 p. m. > when we came upon the main village, situated on the edge of a mountain, iti a thick and almost impenetrable growth of aspens; the ground for some distance being full of springs and very marshy.

When we discovered them the Indians had removed their families, ‘having probably keard of our approach from some of the parties previously attacked, and at the sightof my command abandoned theircampand fled.

I pursued them immediately, encountering great difficulties from the nature of the ground, until they finally disappeared; and the peculiar nature of the country rendered further pursuit useless: they were then descending the mountains in the direction of “Guajatoyas” or “Spanish peaks.” *

Iu this chase the Indians lost five or six, killed and wounded. 1 lost o ue non-commissioned oftLcej-, (Sergeant Lewis V. Guthrie) who was mortally wounded and died the next day. Icaptnred also a number of horses, mules, sheep, and cattle.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant.
Captain 1st Dragoons, and Brevet Major, U. S. A. Lieut. Ii. McLAws,
A. A*>Adj. Gen. 9/A Mtt. Deft., Santa Fc, New Mexico.


Aug 26 – Pinto River 1st Dragoons – 1

Nov 17 nr Colorado Rv Cp Sitgreaves – 1
Warriors of the Colorado p329 Yuma’s
Backcountry Adventures Arizona: The Ultimate Guide to the Arizona p73:
The Yumas managed to pick off a straggling soldier.
A firefight ensued, and only after several of the Indian warriors were,killed, were the Yuma routed.
From Texas to San Diego in 1851: the overland journal of Dr. S.W. Woodhouse, p149/50
Our men followed close in the ; and were thus enabled to recover the body of one of the soldiers who fell in the beginning of the attack
by Cultural Systems Research, Inc.
It was not until 1850 that arrangements could be made to send the first expedition westward across the lower Colorado River north of the Quechan area, an expedition headed by Captain Lorenzo Sitgreaves of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
Passing through what became Union Pass to the Colorado River after a difficult trip through a desert parched as a result of a drought, the Sitgreaves party reached the Colorado River someplace west of present-day Kingman, Arizona. Following a well-worn trail down the river the party found Indian signs experienced men of the party interpreted as warnings against proceeding further, but when they finally encountered Mojaves, they found them inclined to be friendly, eager to run alongside them, talking and laughing. In the evening, they brought “small quantities of pumpkins, beans, corn, and sometimes wheat to barter, and indicated they would like to set up a market to trade more extensively. Unfortunately for the continuance of such good relations, Sitgreaves’ men, being somewhat frightened of the Mojave, tried to eject the Indians from the camp. Elderly women among the Mojave vociferously protested, and in the morning the doctor in the party was shot in the leg by an arrow (which did no harm), and several other arrows fell among the mules. They were allowed to depart in the morning without incident, except for “yells of defiance” from a distance (Sitgreaves 1854, cited in Sherer 1994:33-36).
A week later, the Sitgreaves expedition had a friendly reception at the next Mojave settlement, where they were told by a Spanish-speaking Mojave that they were eight days’ journey from the mouth of the Gila. They were also given a description of Camp Yuma.
The expedition members gave gifts to some of the older men, but remained vigilant, a precaution that proved fortunate when a soldier lagging in the rear was attacked and killed by a band of 50 to 60 Mojaves, who then attacked the party as a whole with arrows. Four were killed and several wounded by firearms in the short battle that followed, and they left, taking with them the “musketoon” of the soldier they had killed (Sitgreaves 1854, cited in Sherer 1994:36).


24jan/19febr nr Laguna 2Dragoons AWC – 5
Irish Deaths In the Frontier Army
Joyce Patrick 07/14 1848 Philadelphia, PA Limerick Soldier 28.000 Blue Brown Sallow 5′ 9 1/2″ K 2 Dragoons Private Killed in Action Indians Laguna New Mexico Territory 01/25 1852
Collins Andrew 11/18 1848 New York, NY Cork Soldier 27.000 Blue Brown Fair 5′ 7″
D 2 Dragoons Private Killed in Action Indians Jornado del Muerto New Mexico
Territory 02/19 1852 2 Killed “in action with Apache Indians on the Jornado
Del Muerto, while defending the mail from El Paso.”
His company was stationed at Ft. Conrad, NM.

6 febr nr Ft Webster 3Inf AWC – 3

Irish Deaths In the Frontier Army
Dougherty / O’Dougherty Barnard / Bernard 03/06 1849 New York, NY Down Laborer 22.000 Hazel Brown Ruddy 5′ 7 1/2″ K 3 Inf. Sergeant Killed in Action Indians nr. Ft. Webster New Mexico Territory 02/07 1852 RR: Verify surname has an “O” and spelling of given name. Killed during a raid on the post’s horse herd.
Crotty John 08/07 1848 Houlton, ? Waterford Laborer 23.000 Blue Dark Fair 5′ 8″ K 3 Inf. Private Killed in Action Indians Ft. Webster New Mexico Territory 02/06 1852 Killed during a raid on the post’s horse herd.

March 5 – ColoradoR nr Cp Yuma – Serg.Taylor – 1st Drag – 5/8
Civil war to the bloody end: the life & times of Major General Samuel P Heinzelmann. P51:
…Heintzelman sent Captain Edward H. Fitzgerald with a detachment
of forty dragoons and a mule train to escort the wagons to the post.
After traversing the boggy Yuma Valley, Fitzgerald went into camp
in the desert 18 miles away only to have 8 of his men and a civilian
teamster attacked and besieged for 18 hours by as many as 300 Yuma
warriors. All but one of the men guarding the dragoon’s animals
were killed, as were four of the Indians in what was called “the Battle
of San Luis”.
Encyclopedia of Indian wars: western battles and skirmishes, 1850-1890
5 MARCH 1852 CAMP YUMA (Yuma, Arizona) Abandoned for about eight
months, Camp Yuma had recently been reoccupied by Capt. …
Company C, 1st Dragoons, were guarding the post’s horses when Yuma
Indians attacked. Five soldiers were killed.
Record of service of Connecticutt men
Belts, George Priv. Hartford, June 12/48
Co. E, 1st Dragoons
Killed by Indians Mch. 5, 52, near camp, thirty miles

Captain Cremony’s Fight – 3

During the year 1852, the Boundary Commission having completed their labors
and gone to San Diego, Captain Cremony, who had been attached to it as
interpreter, was employed by a party of ten men, who had organized for the
purpose of exploring a portion of Arizona, their object being to locate and exploit
gold and silver mines.
The Indians were defeated, losing ten killed and a number wounded, how many
wounded was never ascertained. The whites lost one man, James Kendrick, and
three were wounded, towit : John Wollaston, John H. Marble, and Theodore Houston.
Houston and Marble died of their wounds soon after reaching Tucson, which resulted
in breaking up the party.


at Fort Defiance Navaho document – 1

5 march Cogillon River – 2
Compilation Indian Engagements, 1837-1866
Army War College:
March 5, Cogillon Rv, 2Dragoons:H; Lt Bell
Killed: 2 enlisted men
Fort Union:
Lobo resisted and a brief skirmish followed. The Indians
fought only a few minutes and then scattered, but Bell
did not pursue them because he suspected a possible ambush.
The Jicarillas lost five men killed, including Chief Lobo,
and several wounded.
The soldiers had two killed (Privates William A. Arnold and
James Bell) and four wounded (Bugler Adam T. Conalki and
Privates Edward Golden, John Steel, and William Walker).
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
Bell James 03/23 1853 Philadelphia, PA Londonderry Tailor 23.000
Blue Sandy Ruddy 5′ 7 1/4″ H 2 Dragoons Private Killed in
Action Indians Congillon River New Mexico Territory 03/05 1854

30 march Cianeguilla NM Lt Davidson 1Drag Ft Burgwin – 22 -24

First Dragoons: Muster Rolls Battle of Cieneguilla 30 March 1854
Muster Roll Troop I April 30, 1854
Captain William Grier, on leave
1st Lt. John W. Davidson, commanding

Non- Commissioned Officers

Benjamin Dempsey Sgt. (wounded Cieneguilla 30 March 1854)
Richard Byrnes Sgt. (wounded Cieneguilla;)
Henry McGrath Bugler (wounded Cieneguilla)


Joseph Baitsell (wounded Cieneguilla)
James Bronson (wounded Cieneguilla)
Charles Crout (wounded Cieneguilla)
Owen Curtis (wounded Cieneguilla)
Joseph Dowd (wounded Cieneguilla)
Frederick Miller (wounded Cieneguilla)
Sam Sommerville (wounded Cieneguilla)
Peter Sullivan (wounded Cien. and later died of wounds)
Peter Weldon March 3, 1851, Philadelphia (wounded Cieneguilla)


1st Sgt. Wm Holbrook
Sgt. Wm Kent
Farrier Reuben Luaele
Augustus Bunker
John Dale
Wm Driscoll
Thomas Gibbins
Louis Humbert
William Null
Reuben Pease
Gordon R. Rennif
Charles F. Roltger
John Bradley

MUSTER ROLL Troop F April 30, 1854

Bvt. Major and Captain Philip H. Thompson, commanding

Non Commissioned Officers

Corp. Jno K. Davis 23 November 1850, Boston (wounded Cieneguilla)


Jerome Bates (sick wounded Cieneguilla)
Jasmes Bach (sick wounded Cieneguilla)
Michael Flood (wounded Cieneguilla)
Jeremiah Mahoney (wounded Cieneguilla)
Frank Winder (wounded Cieneguilla)


Thomas Awart
Martin Bennett
Geo. W. Breenwald
Willaim Dell
Thomas Huffin (wounded Cienguilla, died 6 April)
Henry Kemble
Alexander McDonald
Anton Schmultz

History of the First Dragoons
On 30 March 1854, Companies F and I, under the command of 1st Lt. John
W. Davidson, attacked a Jicarilla Apache encampment near Cieneguilla, New Mexico
The two companies soon found themselves surrounded and were forced to retreat. In a running battle, the Dragoons lost 24 men killed in action and 22 men wounded. This was the worst defeat inflicted upon the regiment during the Ante Bellum period.
Nonetheless, an Army court of inquiry held in Santa Fe, in 1856, cleared Lt. Davidson
of misconduct.

April 6 (8) Rio Caliente Lt.Colonel Cooke 1&2Dragoons – 1

(AWC 8apr)
Irish Deaths In the Frontier Army
Casey John 11/30 1849 Albany, NY Wakeford Laborer 21.000 Blue Brown, dark Ruddy 5′ 8 1/8″* G 1 Dragoons Private Killed in Action Indians Ojo Caliente New Mexico Territory 04/08 1854

30 june south Ft Union 2 Dragoons (Lt Maxwell) AWC – 1
1 nov nr Ft Davis lt Fink 8Inf AWC, Ft Davis roster – 3

Fort Davis Soldiers’ Roster

Clarenece, Wm. Sgt. G 8th Inf.
Killed or captured by Indians near Ft. Davis 11/1/1854

Love, James Pvt. G 8th Inf.
Killed or captured by Indians near Ft. Davis on 11/1/1854

Raap, John Drum G 8th Inf.
Killed or captured by Indians near Ft. Davis 11/1/1854


Jan 15 – Los Lunas Cp Whittlesey 1 Drag – 1
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
Rooney John
H 1 Dragoons Private DOWR-In Action Indians Sante Fe New Mexico
Territory 01/29 1855 Wounded 01/16/1855 and died “from an arrow wound.”
Michno states he was taken to 95 miles to Anton Chico with an arrow
buried two inches in his head.
U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
Private Rooney, 1st U.S. Dragoons, underwent emergency field expedient medical
treatment for an arrow wound to the skull suffered in a skirmish with Apaches near
Galisteo, NM. Only 1/8 inch of the 21/2 inch-long arrowhead protruded above the
wound. “One of the Mexicans got hold of it with his teeth,” related a comrade, “and
could not move it . . . Then one of the citizens . . . tried it with his Bowie knife,
but could not succeed . . . one of our men . . . had a pair of pliers . . . which just
answered the purpose.” Rooney died of his wound in a hospital 13 days later. (1855)

19 jan Sacramento Mts Cpt Stanton Legend of Cpt St – 3

24 febr Wh Mnt Cp Ewell 1 Drag AWC – 2

Whiteface Mountain

23 February 1855; Becker, New Mexico: A few days after Capt. Richard S. Ewell’s bone-weary dragoons returned from their trip to the Rio Penasco, a band of die-hard Mescaleros who had followed them back attacked a horse-grazing camp 25 miles from the post at Los Lunas. Four soldiers of Company G, 1st Dragoons, in Ewell’s command, were guarding the horses when the Indians struck, late on 23 February. After a bloody fight in which every soldier was hit at least four times, the dragoons drove off the Mescaleros. Two of the soldiers succumbed to their wounds on 21 March.
Ft Tours, Michno

29 april Arkans River Cp Brooks 1 Dr&2Inf AWC – 1

Lynn Patrick 05/11 1852 Sante Fe, NM Antrim Laborer
24.000 Hazel Brown Fair 5′ 5″ D 2 Art. Private DOWR-
In Action Indians nr. Arkansas River Colorado Territory 04/29 1855

June 13 – Junction Delaware & Pecos River – Capt. Stevenson 5Inf – 4
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
Hartigan James 10/26 1854 New York, NY Limerick Laborer 21.000 Blue Brown Fair 5′ 6″
I 5 Inf. Private Killed in Action Indians Delaware Creek New Mexico Territory 06/13 1855
“In a conflict with Indians on the Staked Plains about 8 miles east of the junction of
Delaware Creek with the Pecos River, 150 miles from El Paso, Dept. of New Mexico.”
McDonald Owen 06/11 1851 Pittsburg, PA Limerick Laborer 21.000 Blue Brown, Light Ruddy 5′ 6″ I 5 Inf. Private Killed in Action Indians Delaware Creek New Mexico Territory 06/13 1855 “In a conflict with Indians on the Staked Plains about 8 miles east of the junction of Delaware Creek with the Pecos River, 150 miles from El Paso, Dept. of New Mexico.”
McIntyre Patrick 10/03 1854 Harrisburg, PA Cavan Laborer 25.000 Grey Brown, Light Florid
5′ 8″ I 5 Inf. Private Killed in Action Indians Delaware Creek New Mexico Territory 06/13
1855 “In a conflict with Indians on the Staked Plains about 8 miles east of the junction of
Delaware Creek with the Pecos River, 150 miles from El Paso, Dept. of New Mexico.”
Harrigan James 10/21 1854 Philadelphia, PA Clare Laborer 24.000 Blue Sandy Sandy 5′ 4 1/2″ I 5 Inf. Private Killed in Action Indians Delaware Creek nr. Pecos River New Mexico Territory 06/13 1855 “In a conflict with Indians on the Staked Plains about 8 miles east of the junction of Delaware Creek with the Pecos River, 150 miles from El Paso, Dept. of New Mexico.”

November south of Zuni Dodge – 1
Slain Indian agent’s Navajo son ascended to wealth, status
Dodge was born into a prominent Missouri family in 1810. His father was a noted
Army general, and his brother became a U.S. senator.
Henry thought a military career was for him, and at age 22, he fought in the Black
Hawk Indian War.
But he seems to have left the service, and early in 1846, he turned up in New Mexico.
When Gen. Stephen W. Kearny conquered the province later that summer, he noticed
Dodge and appointed him treasurer of the new American government formed in Santa Fe.
A few years after that, the Army made him agent for the Quartermaster
Department at the outpost of Cebolleta in the mountains west of Albuquerque.
That put him on the edge of Navajo country, and Henry L. Dodge found his true
love — the Navajo people.
In rapidly learning their difficult language, he did something few other whites ever
accomplished. That led the government to appoint him agent for the tribe in 1853 at
an annual salary of $1,500.
The Indians developed a great liking for Dodge and respectfully called him Bi’ee lichii,
meaning Red Shirt, because he always wore a bright blouse of that color.
He further won their confidence when he married the niece of a celebrated Navajo peace
chief, Zarcillos Largo. From his agency at Fort Defiance (now in eastern Arizona, but
then in New Mexico), he saw that his charges were treated fairly.
In November 1856, Coyotero Apaches attacked Zuni Pueblo.
Soldiers from Fort Defiance went in pursuit, and Agent Dodge accompanied them.
About 30 miles south of Zuni, he left the troop to go deer hunting.
The Apaches caught him alone and killed him.
Biography: Henry Chee Dodge
Henry Dodge was a native Missourian who fought in the Black Hawk Indian War when he was twenty-two years old. After he left the army, he later turned up in New Mexico, in early 1846. Simmons reported that Henry Dodge was appointed treasurer of the new American government formed in Santa Fe, and then the army made him agent for the Quartermaster Department at the outpost of Cebolleta in the mountains west of Albuquerque, close to Navajo country. The appointment had a profound effect on his life. “Henry L. Dodge,” wrote Simmons, “found his true love – the Navajo people.”
Henry Dodge learned the Navajo language and became an agent for the tribe in 1853. In that position, he was determined to make sure the people were treated fairly. In turn, the Navajos liked and respected Dodge and called him Bi’ee lichii (red shirt), because of his favored piece of apparel. Dodge also married a Navajo woman.
In November 1856, after Coyotero Apaches attacked Zuni Pueblo, Henry Dodge joined army soldiers in their pursuit. When he left the group to go deer hunting, the Apaches killed him.

11 march Ojo del Muerto Lt Baker Mount Riflm AWC – 2
Senate Documents – Secretary of War 1857
March 11, 1857, Second Lieutenant Lawrence S. Baker, mounted
riflemen, with a small detachment from company B, same
regiment, from Fort Thorn, New Mexico, after a hot pursuit continued
through the night, came, at a place known as Ojo dd Muerto, upon
a party of Indians, supposed to be Mescalero Apaches, or Kioways,
who had run off the animals of the United States surveying party,
and succeeded in routing them, recapturing the stolen animals, as
well as those belonging to the Indians, together with their other
property. The exact loss of the Indians not known.
Lieutenant Baker’s conduct in this affair has been commended by
the department commander.
His loss was, Private Patrick Sullivan, killed, and Private Bernard
Dougherty, mortally wounded, (since dead,) Sergeant P. Duggan,
Corporal John Brady, and Musician Thomas Reed, wounded.
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
Sullivan Patrick 04/19 1856 New Orleans, LA Galway Baker 26.000
Blue Brown Fair 5′ 10 1/2″ B Mounted Rifles Private
Killed in Action Indians Ojo del Muerto New Mexico Territory
03/11 1857 2 Previously served in Co. B 1st Inf.

1857 July 24 – Pecos River, near Fort Lancaster – 1st & 8th Infantry
Fort and Treasure Trails of West Texas
A typical encounter occurred in July of 1857 when a band of Apaches attacked a mail train en route to Fort Davis from Fort Lancaster.
The escort was made up of Infantry which fled back to Lancaster after the sergeant in charge was killed.
The Old Army in Texas
When Mescalero Apache attacked forty-five miles from Fort Lancaster the infantry
concealed in the wagons killed three Apache and wounded three more. July 25 …
Senate Documents – Secretary of War
XXII. July 24, 1857. The mail escort of one sergeant and six
privates of the 8th infantry, commanded by Sergeant Schroeder, and
a wood party of one sergeant and six privates of the 1st infantry,
commanded by Sergeant Libbey, having been attacked at a place
known as the Ripples, about twenty-five miles from Fort Lancaster,
on the road from that post to Fort Davis, Texas, by a body of from
eighty to one hundred Indians, and Sergeant Schroeder killed ; a detachment
of forty men from the 1st infantry at Fort Lancaster, under
Second Lieutenants A. M. Haskell and John P. Sherburne, joined to
a detachment of forty men of the 8th infantry from Fort Davis, the
whole under Second Lieutenant Edward L. Hartz, 8th infantry, was
sent out against them. The commander placed his men in wagons,
with the covers closely drawn, and marched under the guise of a provision
train. The ruse was successful, and the party was attacked,
about forty-five miles from Fort Lancaster, by a body of mounted
Indians, supposed to be Muscalero Apaches, who were driven back
with a loss of three of their number killed and wounded. The troops
were unhurt. The conduct of the sergeants commanding the mail
escort and the wood party is represented as perfectly correct, and it
seems to have been gallant and judicious.


Sept 14 – near Laguna Chusco Cl Miles MRiflem&3Inf – 2
Report Secretary of War 1858, 313
Our loss has been one, bugler Ezekiel Fisher, of “I” company, mounted rifles;
private Manus Sweeny, of “A” company, mounted rifles, died of wounds
Arizona Board of Regents
Colonel Miles declined to hold any council with them and active hostilities were prepared for.
On the next morning Colonel Miles, with three companies of mounted riflemen, two of infantry and Lucero’s scouts, entered the Canyon de Chelly, and, on the 11th, marched through the lower half of the canyon, meeting with no material resistance, but occasionally killing or capturing an Indian.
When camped for the night in the canyon, the Indians gathered on the heights above and began firing at them. The attack did no harm, for the walls of the canyon were so high that the arrows lost their force and dropped horizontally to the ground.
It was thought better, however, not to take any risks.
The father of the leader of the attacking party was among the prisoners who had been taken, and notice was given to him that he would be hung if the firing did not stop.
He communicated his danger to his son, who withdrew his warriors, and left the command in peace.
The next day they reached the mouth of the canyon, where Nah-risk-thlaw-nee, a chief, came in under a flag of truce, but was informed that there would be no peace until the murderer was surrendered. The soldiers then moved southwest twelve miles, to the ponds where the principal herds of the vicinity were pastured. Here six thousand sheep were captured.
The Indians attacked the pickets on the morning of the 14th but were driven off after wounding four men, one mortally.
The same day a bugler was killed, having wandered away from the command.
The troops returned to the fort on the 15th having killed six Indians, captured seven, and wounded several, bringing with them six thousand sheep and a few horses.

Oct 1 Bear Springs Cp Lindsay MR&3Inf&8Inf – 2 / 4
2 killed & 1 wounded
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
Nugent William H Mounted Rifles Private Missing, presumed dead Indians
Bear Springs, 10 miles north of New Mexico Territory 10/01 1858 2
Arizona Board of Regents
On the 30th a detachment of 126 men, under Captain Lindsay, was sent
back to the camp of Ka-ya-ta-na’s band on a laguna fifteen miles distant.
The detachment reached their destination about three o’clock in the morning
and found the place deserted.
The detachment followed on the trail of the Indians, and, at daybreak, discovered
them in a deep canyon, the descent to which was very difficult.
As the soldiers were making their way down in single file, the foremost having
just gained the bottom, three Indians rode up. With exclamations of astonishment
and alarm, they turned and fled to warn their people. However, about a dozen men
succeeded in reaching the bottom, and, with this handful, Captain Lindsay charged
down the canyon.
After a hard ride of five miles, they succeeded in overtaking the Indians and
headed off their stock, amounting to seventy horses and four thousand sheep.
On a wooded knoll in the canyon, Captain Lindsay held the stock with his
handful of men until the remainder of his command came up.
The property in the camp which had been deserted, consisting of blankets,
robes, and other supplies, was all destroyed.
In this action the Indians lost eight men killed; the troops four men killed,
and one wounded.

The Army and the Indians
The combats between United States troops and hostile Indians, mentioned below
in the order of date, with conjoined gallant acts and soldier-like endurance of hardships,
highly creditable to tile troops, Save been brought to the notice of the General-inChief
since the publication of General Orders No. 22, of 1858, viz.:
Col. Dixon S. Miles, 2d Infantry Then Lieut. Col. 3d Infantry), commanding Navajoe expedition, marched from Fort Defiance with (Companies “Av (Capt. Elliot), ” F” (2d 1. Avercll), ” I” (Capt 14), and “H” {Capt. Lindsay’s) Mounted Riflemen- “B.” 3, (lst Lieut. Whipple,) and “K,’; 8th Infantry fist Lieut. Willard)-293 rank and file-and twentytwo guides and spies, under Capt. Blas Lucero
The results of this expedition were the capture of eighty horses and six thousand five hundred sheep, a of Capt, Lindsay, in command of Companies “F.’. “,” and “I,” Regiment Mounted Riflemenwith Xay-a tanks bands in which eight Indians v era killed and several wounded, four thousand sheep and seventy horses captured, and privates lvm, Nugent and Mautitz Paulman, of ” N ‘I Company, Mounted Riflemen, killed, and Sergeant John Thompson. of the same Company, wounded; and a skirmish by Capt. Elliot, (Company “A,” Reglment Mounted Ritlemen,) In Lndians were and three wounded and one thousand to fifteen hundred sheep captured.

2 oct Lag Chusca Cp Elliott Mount Riflm AWC – 1

Oct 17 – Canyon Bonita Capt. Lane Mounted Riflemen – 2
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
Merion / Merrion Michael I Mounted Rifles Private Killed in Action Indians
Canon Bonito, nr. Ft. Defiance New Mexico Territory 10/17 1858 RR:
Verify death date/ PR indicates 10/06.
Keating Thomas I Mounted Rifles Private Killed in Action Indians nr. Ft. Defiance
New Mexico Territory 10/19 1858 PR indicates 10/06 death date while ER & RR show 10/19.
The Army and the Indians
The combats between United States troops and hostile Indians, mentioned below
in the order of date, with conjoined gallant acts and soldier-like endurance of hardships,
highly creditable to tile troops, Save been brought to the notice of the General-inChief
since the publication of General Orders No. 22, of 1858, viz.:
Oct 17,1858.-
The Post-herd of Fort Defiance, N. M., and horses of Company ” G.” Mounted Rifles, guarded by fifteen Mounted Riflemen and ten Infantry,under Sergeant Bernard W. Clark, of Company ‘;l,22 Mounted Rifles, was attacked by three hundred Navajos, concealed in ambush.
The Sergeant admirably, and was gallantly sustained by his men and the Zuni Indians encamped near by. Sixty. two mules were lost, but the Sergeant succeeded in saving all, except three, of the Company horses, with Abe sheep and cattle under his charge.
Capt. George McLane, Mounted Rifles, with twelve men, promptly followed by Capt. Andrew J. Lindsay, with “11,” and Lieut, Geo.W. Howland with Company tic,,, Mounted Rifles, pursued as soon as possible, and, in a sharp conflict, Private Michael Marrion, of ” I” Company Mounted Rifles was Thomas Heating, same Company, mortally wounded, Private John G. Housanan severely wounded, Felix O’Rourke dangerously wounded, and Privates Brown and RichSrd HiU, same Company, slightly wounded.


Jan 25 Whetstone Spring Sg Kelly 1 Drag – 2
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
Kelly John 03/13 1854 Ft. Snelling, MN Soldier 33.000 Hazel Dark Ruddy 5′ 9″
D 1 Dragoons Sergeant Killed in Action Indians Whetstone Springs Arizona
Territory 01/25 1859 3 “Killed by Apache Indians while on furlough.”

Febr 8 – Dog Canyon Lt Lazelle MRifl (Ogden,Newman,Stamper) – 3
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
Ni ??
Mounted Rifles Private Killed in Action Indians Dog Canyon New Mexico
Territory 02/08 1859

1859 13 aug. Devil’s Gate Canyon – Lt. Gay
Lleut. ay commen s Lleut. George Ryan, 7th Infantry, for his valuable services am the occasion, and Assistant-Surgeon Jolun Moore, Medical Department, for his immediate and Idnd at. to Use wounded.
NAVIES OF WOUNDED-First-Serge;mt Tllomas I. Durvln, Corporal R. F Cordua, Bugler Henry Wintcr Joxvcr, and Privates Samucl Smith and Imllllel Ticrcy, severely * and Private Jacob Eg6ersteat, slightly.
IS. Av(;. 15, .-Sccond-Licut. Richard II Brcxv13r, Ist Dragoons, Icft Fort Crook, California, m of a scouting party, to pursue a party of Indians who had committed a murder at Hat Creck Station. After a rough march across mountains, Lieut. Brewer came up the Indiarls as they *vere leaving a Ranche, and succeeded in killing hvo, ss one, and capturing one Indian boy. The band pursued numbered beta Yen forty and sixty, well with firearms-rifles and revolvers.
Oct. 18,185D.-A party of five Navajo Indians, having, during the night of the 17th, broken into the corral of Don Francisco Sandoval, within two yards of Camp near Jernez, Nova -hi CXiCO, and stolen one horse, six donkeys and seven head of cattle, Capt. Thomas Duncan, Riflemen, detached from his camp at the above place ten men, of Companv *’ I:> Mounted Sergeallt Jolm l) men of Capt. ValdezCmnpanyof spies , accompanied by Don Sandov.ll
After a rapid pursuit of about fifty miles, Sergeant OuEdrl succeeded, just before sunset, In overtaking the , whom he at ones attacked, killing one after a chase of four or five miles, and r four and all the stolen cattle. H. CorrecUons and additions to the notice of coml)ats in General Orders, NOS. 14, of 1857, and 6:, of t. In paragraph 2, of Gencral Orders, No. 14, of , Lieut.-Col. Silas Casey, 9th InfallLry, should have beets designated as the troops of the Puget Sound District. 2, JOSE l-i, 1858.-Second Lieut. Wiliam B. Hazen, 8tl, infantry, xvith a command of two non- and – privates of the 8th infantry, after for 220 miles a party of Apache Indians that had driven o’d from Fort Davis, Texas, came upon a ranch of fifteen ledges, killed one Indian, captured another, and also thirty horses and mules, and much other property, and and entire possessions, among ; were several thousand hounds of preparer food. IsIuch of this mare ll w as over a country desti. tute OF and grass. 3. ‘glee unequal combat of Capt. George LIeLane, (l Ril1emen, Par. 13 of General Orders, No. 22, of 1858, occurred between men of company *’ F.” Alounte(i Rinomcn, the Complllly of guides and spies commanded by Capt Blas Lueero, and tin en (lre(l Navajocs. The results some eight or tCII Indians , their and cooking utensils c:, numerous bolts and arrows, smith T)iCke(l (Ip, lad IllCII told t\VCllty-fOar ;SeS t.l);en. C:lpt.Al(Lallc the coolness, Taring all(l execution of Privates Brosm and (;, all(l the an(l gallantry of Calil Luccro and his He also IllClltiOIIS ; conduct of Am. frost, the Nav:joe , Evho was present . 1. Limits. George IIItiC and JameslIownrdrvitl Coml,:,:ld Altillery,+crc (l . George Wrigllt 9tll Illfalltry, ill 1IIS rcl)ol t of the combat of Spoltall I’laills, September 6,1858. BY C(UnlNand Of BlCVCt l.;eUS- . Lteut.-Col. and A. D. C.


Febr. 8 or 9 – nr Ft Craig Mounted Rifleman Chavez – 2
Indian Hostilities in New Mexico by President United States p: 38
Captain Chavez, who with seven Mexicans, had left his post on the eight, to aid and guide the detachment with Col. Porter, had met a large party of Indians, who had killed two of his men and wounded three others, and asked for assistance.

Jan 17 – near Ft Defiance 3 Inf – 4
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
Gaffy Martin 07/19 1858 Baltimore, MD Galway Laborer 22.000 Grey Brown Fair 5′ 7″ E 3 Inf.
Private Killed in Action Indians nr. Ft. Defiance New Mexico Territory 01/17 1860
Killed about 7 miles from Ft. Defiance.
Rice Patrick 04/13 1855 Chicago, IL Mayo Clerk 21.000 Grey Brown Fair 5′ 7 3/4″* E 3 Inf.
Private Killed in Action Indians Cienega Amarilla New Mexico Territory 01/17 1860 ”
…7 miles from Fort Defiance…”

April 30 Ft Defiance Major Shepherd 3 Inf – 1
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
Johnson Sylvester 05/01 1855 Newport, KY Meath Co. Currier 23.000
Grey Black Fair 5′ 10″ C 3 Inf. Private Killed in Action Indians Ft. Defiance
New Mexico Territory 04/30 1860 RR has surname as Johnston.
“The Post [Ft. Defiance] was attacked by a large force of hostile Navajoe
Indians numbering not less than a thousand warriors, at 4 o’clock in the
morning of the 30th April & the enemy were not entirely repulsed from the
Post till 6 o’clock a.m.

13/28 oct Cold Spr Cp Clayborne Mount Riflm 2 Dr AWC – 1


3 jan Chusca Valley Cp Rossell 5Inf AWC – 1

May 16 – Monkey Springs, nr Ft Buchanan – 1
Cochise, Chiricahua Apache Chief , p174
Private Salliot killed

June 22 – nr Ft. Buchanan 7th Inf. – 1
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
Driskell Thomas 05/11 1860 Boston, MA Cork Tailor 25.000
Blue Brown Ruddy 5′ 7 1/2”
C 7 Inf. Private Killed in Action Indians Ft. Buchanan New Mexico Territory
06/22 1861 “Killed by hostile Apache Indians 1 mile from the Post while
herding government animals.”

July 20-21 Cook’s Canyon escort Butterfield Overland Mail. – (7)
Cochise, Chiricahua Apache Chief, p 181-182.

The Land of the ‘Free’?
1861 – On July 21, 300 natives under Cochise and Mangus Coloradas attacked a Tucson-bound mail coach at Cook’s Canyon, New Mexico Territory (present-day Arizona). The seven guards held out for three days before being killed. Cochise later admitted that he lost 175 warriors in the battle. 277
1861 – On September 4, The Semi-Weekly Raleigh Register of North Carolina reported:
Massacre of the Mail Party.
The Mesilla Times, extra, of July 26th, furnishes the following accounts of the murder of the California mail party, already given by telegraph as a rumor: An express from Pino Alto brings the appalling intelligence that the mail bound for Los Angelos, California, which left Mesilla on the 20th, had been taken near Cook’s Springs, by the Apaches, and the guard murdered. The express passed Cook’s Springs on the 27th, and found six bodies in the canon near the Springs, stripped of their clothing, and three of them scalped. They had been killed several days. The coach was destroyed. The following persons left Mesilla with the coach and are all supposed to have been murdered: conductor Free Thomas, Jos. Roacher, M. Champion, John Portell, Robt. Avlin, Emmet Mills, and John Wilson. They were experienced frontiersmen, picked for the dangerous duty they had to perform, and undoubtedly gave the Indians a most desperate struggle. They were general favorites in the Rio Grande Valley, and their loss spreads general gloom over the community.

A Butterfield Overland Mail station was built in 1858 near the mouth of Cooke’s Canyon…
…so stage coaches traveling from El Paso, Texas, via Mesilla and Picacho Village, New Mexico, could join Cooke’s Trail wending westward. The route heading west was:
*0Mesilla to Picacho, New Mexico, 6 miles
*1Picacho to Rough and Ready, New Mexico, 9 miles
*2Rough and Ready to Slocum’s, New Mexico, 7 miles
*3Slocum’s to Magdalena Mountain, New Mexico, 3 miles
*4Magdalena Mountain to Massacre Gap, New Mexico, 4 miles
*5Massacre Gap to Dona Ana County line, New Mexico, 1 mile
*6and on to Fort Cummings at Cook’s Peak (then in Grant County, now in Luna County).
Cooke’s Trail through New Mexico was pioneered by Colonel Cooke leading the Mormon Battalion in 1846. Cooke’s Battalion also discovered Cooke’s Spring, Cooke’s Peak and Cooke’s Canyon. But by 1862, an estimated 400 emigrants, soldiers, and civilians had been killed by Apaches while travelling through the four-mile “gauntlet of death” that Cook’s Canyon had become.

On July 23, 1861, after the outbreak of the Civil War, Mangas Colorados and a large band of Chiricahua Apaches attacked seven men who were on a stagecoach in Cooke’s Canyon. All seven were killed but one managed to leave a blood-stained note under a rock telling of a two-day fight during which the Indians lost forty warriors. This was one of many Indian attacks in Cooke’s Canyon which led to pressure for military action–and to the establishment of Fort Cummings, New Mexico, near Cooke’s Canyon in 1863.

Cochise, Chiricahua Apache Chief, by Sweeney
page 181-182
It was into Cook’s Canyon in July 1861 that a party of seven Americans rode.
Former employees of the Butterfield Overland Mail Company, they were known as the free Thomas Party, which consisted of Freeman Thomas, Joe Roescher, Mat Champion, Robert Aveline, Emmett Mills,
John Wilson and John Portell.
All were said to have been experienced frontiersmen who were “picked up for dangerous duty they had to perform.”
Their job was to transport the mail to California.
The whites left Mesilla on the morning of July 20, by the next evening they had reached Cook’s Canyon, where they were waylaid by a party of Apaches probably numbering between 0ne hundred and two hundred.
All available evidence indicate that Cochise was there, though he may not have been in overall command, given Mangas Colorada’s presence.
According to William S. Oury’s account, the attack surprised the Americans, but Thomas quickly responded and ordered the driver to leave the road for high ground.
This achieved, they stripped the coach of guns, ammunition, water and other essentials and sent the team down the hill, hoping this would satisfy the Chiricahuas.
It did not. Next morning, the Indians renewed the fight, which settled into a sniping duel with the besieged Americans, who had constructed a breastwork of rocks, about two feet high, at the top of a small hill.
At this point it becomes difficult to reconstruct the sequence of events.
Various stories reflect the imagination of the writer rather than the facts.
The Indians killed eventually all seven men; four bodies were found within the breastworks, two some 50 yards in the rear, and the other, presumably John Wilson, 150 yards away.
According to some accounts, Mangas Coloradas left after the second day, but not before taking heavy losses.
Although they had suffered casualties, Cochise and Mangas reportedly bore witness to the courage of the seven Americans.
Mangas allegedly admitted to Jack Swilling that the Americans had killed twenty-five warriors and crippled many more; moreover, according to Mangas, if his Apaches has been as brave “as these few white men, he could whip the world.”
In contrast to Swilling, Oury went to the other extreme and claimed that Cochise confessed he lost 175 warriors, ….
Both accounts overstated Apache losses, and Oury’s was perhaps apocryphal.
It was inconceivable that Apaches, even fighting for vengeance, would have exposed themselves to a loss of that magnitude.

Conquest of Apacheria, p19-20

The California State Military Museum
California’s Confederate Militia:
The Los Angeles Mounted Rifles
They resumed their march just before noon on July 25th.
Over the next two days during their 105-mile march to Cook’s Spring, they encountered the burned wrecks of two stagecoaches and the bodies of fourteen who had been killed by the Apache.
The Rifles, however, met no hostiles themselves. From Cook’s Spring it was but another 60 miles to the Rio Grande

Battle of Cooke’s Canyon
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Battle of Cooke’s Canyon
Part of the American Civil War
Apache Wars

Wagon train re-enactment, 1912.
Date Mid August, 1861
Location Cooke’s Canyon, Confederate Arizona
Modern Day: Luna County, New Mexico
Result American victory

Confederate States Apache
N/A Mangas Coloradas,
24 militia 100+ warriors
Casualties and losses
4 killed,
8 wounded unknown
[show]v • d • eApache Wars

The Battle of Cooke’s Canyon was an engagement of the Apache Wars, between settlers from Confederate Arizona, and Chiricahua Apaches. The battle occurred about forty miles northwest of Mesilla, in Cooke’s Canyon.

[edit] Background
In early August, a group of American refugees, from the Tubac area, abandoned their village due to the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Fort Buchanan and the Siege of Tubac which left their homes burned. The bunch was known as the Ake Party, their destination was the Rio Grande River near Mesilla.

The wagon train consisted of six double wagons, two buggies, and one single wagon when it reached Tucson from the surrounding region. At Tucson, several other people joined the procession, which including Moses Carson, the half-brother of the famous scout and soldier, Kit Carson.

The party, now composed of twenty-four men, sixteen women, seven children, along with 400 heads of cattle and 900 heads of sheep, as well as horses and goats. The settlers, who were mostly miners and ranchers, left Tucson on or about August 15, 1861.

The large number of livestock would present an irresistible temptation to the Chiricahua Apache warriors under Cochise and Mangas Coloradas. The journey was uneventful until the party crossed the Mimbres River and made for the springs at Cooke’s Canyon within Traditional Arizona and the present day New Mexico.

[edit] Battle
It is not known for sure whether or not Cochise and Mangas Coloradas were leading the Apache army. Most likely they were, being that they were the commanders of the combined Apache force which operated primarily in the present day southwestern New Mexico where Cooke’s Canyon lies.
When the last wagon had entered the canyon, the Apaches, estimated to number about 100, sprang their ambush by attacking and scattering the large group of livestock.

They then charged the wagons, and were stopped from getting into the wagons after a series of mounted counter charges by several men of the party. The wagons were maneauvered into a circle, and the settlers withstood a siege that lasted the remainder of the day. Eventually the Apaches took to the surrounding slopes, firing both arrows and bullets at long range.

The settlers responded as best they could from their wagon positions, killing several of the attackers which came galloping in towards them on horseback and on foot. Finally, toward the end of the day the Apaches reatreated, taking their plunder of 400 cattle and 900 sheep with them. The settlers withdrew to the Mimbres. They had suffered a loss of four men killed, eight wounded.

The last wagon in the party, carrying most of the women and children, had turned about after the first volley and fled back toward the Mimbres River. Unmolested by the Apaches, this wagon reached the settlement on the Mimbres safely and sent a plea for help to Pinos Altos, where the Arizona Guards were stationed. The Confederate troops responded to the report which led to the Battle of the Florida Mountains, two days later.

[edit] Notes
During the summer of 1861, the Apache warriors of Mangas Coloradas and Cochise massacred several other groups of settlers at Cooke’s Canyon. Apache warriors killed and mutilated a party of seven near the east end of the canyon. Near the same location, they massacred and mutilated nine Mexican herdsmen and stole their forty heads of cattle. Three whites of the same party were taken prisoner, tortured and killed later on.

Again, near that same location they attempted to destroy the Ake Party. Over the months, Apache warriors left what one chronicler called “many bones, skulls, & graves” in Cooke’s Canyon. Eventually, the Apaches killed as many as 100 Americans and Mexicans in Cooke’s Canyon, making it the most feared passage on the trail from Mesilla to Tucson. According to historian Dan Thrapp, 150 whites were killed within 60 days during this period.

9 aug Ft Davis Conf herds Gray&Red – 2

11 aug Brewster Cy Tx Lt Mays 2TxCv Woodland – 10(3)

The Confederate Army of New Mexico‎ – Pagina 322
door Martin Hardwick Hall, Sam Long – 1978 – 422 pagina’s
1862) Dryden, Dr. Thomas H., 23 (in Dona Ana Hospital with epilepsy …
25 ( killed by Apaches while on picket guard August 29, 1861)

3 sept Gallinas Mnt Pulliam Conf (Pemberton,Mosse,Emmenacker)
Gray&Red – 3
(Kiowa’s ?)

27 sept Pinos Altos Ariz Guards Gray&Red – 5?


1 march betw Ft Craig&Union – 2

Compilation of Indian Engagements from 1837-1866, Army War College

March 1 betw Ft Craig & Union, 1 Cv compG, Lt Pennock
2 enlisted men killed

3 march Comanche Canyon – 1

Compilation of Indian Engagements from 1837-1866, Army War College

March 3 Comanche Canyon, NM, 3 Cv compC&detK,
Lt Wall, 1 enlisted man killed
Irish Deaths In the Frontier Army
Hart Patrick 08/25 1858 New York, NY Sligo Laborer 21.000 Grey Brown Fair 5′ 7″ C Mounted Rifles Private Killed in Action Indians Comanche Creek New Mexico Territory 03/03 1862

5 may Dragoon Springs – 4

Fighting the Apache in Confederate Arizona

Dragoon Springs 5may Cp Hunter, 4 soldiers killed

12(18) june Chiricahua Mnt – 1 (1)

California  Civil War Rosters:

William Wheeling. Sergeant 1Cal Inf F
Killed by Apaches, June 12, 1862.

The War of the Rebellion
Volume 9 554
MAJOR: In my letter to you, dated June 18, I informed you that I had sent Expressman John Jones, Sergeant Wheeling, of Company F, First California Volunteer Infantry, and a Mexican guide named Chavez, with ommunications for General Canby.
These men started from Tucson on the evening of June 15. On the 18th they were attacked by a party of Apaches, and Sergeant Wheeling and the guide (Chavez) were killed, and Jones, almost by a miracle, succeeded in getting through the Indians, and after a hot pursuit on their part made out to reach the Rio Grande at a point known as Picacho, 6 miles above Mesilla. He was taken prisoner by the secessionists,

16 june Maricopa Wells – 1

California  Civil War Rosters:
Todd, James Private 5 Cal Inf E
Died of wounds received in a fight with Indians at Maricopa Wells, A.T., June 16, 1862.

25 june Apache Pass – 3

California  Civil War Rosters:

Keith, James F. Private 1Cal Cav B
Killed by Apaches while watering horses at Apache Pass, A.T., June 25, 1862.

Maloney, John. Private 1Cal Cav B
Killed by Apaches while watering horse at Apache Pass, June 25, 1862.

Schmidt, Albert. Private 1 Cal Cav B
Killed by Indians while watering horse at Apache Pass, A.T., June 25, 1862.

The War of the Rebellion
Volume 9 665

Fort Bowie, and garrisoned by 100 rank and file of the Fifth California Volunteer Infantry, and 13 rank and file of Company A, First California Volunteer Cavalry. This post commands the water in that pass. Around this water the Indians have been in the habit of lying in ambush and shooting troops and travelers as they came to drink. In this way they killed 3 of Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre’s command,

July 15 – Apache Pass – 2
California  Civil War Rosters:
O’Brien, Charles M. Private 1 Cal Inf G
Killed at Apache Pass, A.T., in action with Indians, July 15, 1862.
Barr, John Private 1 Cal Inf D
Killed by Indians at Apache Pass, A.T 1862
O’Brien, Charles M., Private, July 16, 1862. Killed by Apaches.
The War of the Rebellion Volume 9 665
… attempting to keep Captain Roberts’ First California Volunteer Infantry
away from the spring a fight ensued, in which Captain Roberts had 2 men killed and
2 wounded.

6 aug Ft Bowie – 1

McFarland, George A. Private 5 Cal Inf G
Died at Tucson, A.T., Oct. 30, 1862, from a gunshot wound received in fight with Apaches at Fort Bowie, A.T., Aug. 6, 1862.

27 aug Ft Davis – 1

The War of the Rebellion
Volume 9 696

Capture Ft Davis by California Regiments, found killed soldier



9 jan. Bosque Grande – 1

The War of the Rebellion
Volume 15 part 1, 228

January 9.-Captain Updegraff, commanding Fort Sumner, reports that 2 men of the picket stationed at Bosque Grande left the picket contrary to orders to hunt, and that one of them, Private Samuel Strunk, Company M, First New Mexico Volunteers, was killed by Indians; that the number of Indians then at Bosque Redondo was 248.

29 jan. Pinos Altos Mines – 1

California  Civil War Rosters:

Hussey, William Private 5 Cal Inf A
Killed by Indians at Pinos Altos, A.T., Jan. 29, 1863.

The War of the Rebellion
Volume 15 part 1, 228
January 29.-On the 29th January the Indians attacked two hunting parties of Company A, Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers, at Pinos Altos Mines; killed Private William Hussey and wounded Sergeant [T. B.] Sitton. The Indians were driven off with a loss of 20 killed and 15 wounded. Sergeant Sitton behaved gallantly in this affair.

27 march Rio Bonito – 1

California  Civil War Rosters:

Hall, James. Private 1 Cal Cav B
Died at Fort West, A.T., April 6, 1863,being wounded by Apache Indians on the Rio Benito, Mar. 27, 1863.

The War of the Rebellion
Volume 15 part 1, 229
March 22.-On the afternoon of March 22 the Gila Apaches made a descent upon the public her which was grazing near Fort West
-. At 8 o’clock p.m. the gallant Major William McCleave, First Cavalry California Volunteers, started in pursuit with a command consisting of Lieutenants French and Latimer, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, 40 men of Company A, 25 men of Company b, and 14 men of Company C, First Cavalry, California Volunteers. Major McCleave followed trail of Indians in a westerly course about 70 miles and down the Gila 5 miles, then across a divide to Rio Negro……….….. the 27th until dawn of day, it raining all the time. When light enough to see Major McCleave discovered from an elevated position trees, which indicated that the rancheria was near by. Lieutenant Latimer was ordered ahead with his command; discovered rancheria and gallantly charged upon it. Part of the dismounted men immediately commenced gathering in and guarding the horses to prevent the escape of the Indians, while the others were skirmishing and fighting on the bluffs. The fight lasted for twenty minutes, and resulted in the complete routing of the Indians, the capture of all our own horses that could be found and many Indian horses, the killing of 25 Indians, and the complete destruction of the rancheria, provisions, and all they possessed. Private [James] Hall, of Company B, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, was wounded in this fight. On 5th Private Hall died from wounds received in the fight

7 may Cajou de Arivaypa – (1)

The War of the Rebellion
Volume 26 23
May -.- Captain T. T. Tidball, Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers, with 25 of his company and a small party of citizens, attacked a rancheria in Cajoin de Arivaypa,killing over 50 Indians,wounding as many more, taking 10 prisoners, and capturing 60 head of stock, with the loss of only 1 man, Thomas McClelland. The party marched five days without lighting a fire,maintaining silence, hiding by day and traveling by night, over a country hitherto untrod by white men.

20 june Warm Springs nr Ft McRae – 2

The War of the Rebellion
Volume 26 23,24
June 20.- Captain A. H. Pfeiffer, wife, and 2 servant girls, with escort of 6 men of the First New Mexico Volunteers, were attacked by a party of Apache Indians, numbering 15 or 20, at a hot spring near Fort McRae. The captain was bathing at the time, when the Indians made a rush upon the party, killing two men, Privates N. Quintana and Mestas. Captain Pfeiffer was wounded in his side by an arrow, and Private Dolores received two shots in his right arm and hand. A citizen named Betts, who was with Captain Pfeiffer, was also wounded. The remainder of party, except the women, succeeded in reaching Fort McRae unharmed, and reported facts to Major Morrison, commanding post. He immediately started in pursuit with 20 mounted men, but did not succeed in overtaking the Indians. Mrs. Pfeiffer and the servant girls were found in the trail, badly wounded. Mr. Pfeiffer and one of the servants have since died; the other doing well. Loss in this affair, 2 privates killed, 2 women mortally wounded, 1 officer, 1 private, 1 woman, and a citizen wounded; 7 horses and 2 mules taken by the Indians. Indian loss unknown.

21 june Gallinas Springs – 3

California  Civil War Rosters:

Hinkley, John Private 5 Cal Inf A Killed by Indians at Gallinas Sp’gs, N.M., June 21, 1863. See CP 247

Wagoner, Justus B. Private 5 Cal Inf A
Killed by Indians at Gallinas Sp’gs, N.M., June 21,

The War of the Rebellion
Volume 26 23,24

June -.- Major Joseph Smith, commanding Fort Stanton, reports that the Indians attacked the expressmen on the 21st of June, near the Gallinas, and compelled them to abandon their mules and express matter, and take to the mountains. The mules and express lost.

June 28.- Lieutenant W. H. Higdon, Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers, reports that on his way from Fort Stanton to Santa Fe, near Gallinas Springs, he found the bodies of Privates N. Quintana, of Company A, First New Mexico Volunteers, and John Hinkley, of Company A, Fifth California Volunteers, who had been murdered by the Indians. The Indians had evidently wounded Private Quintana, tied him to a stake, and burned him. Some legal-tender notes and several letters were found near the body of Hinckley.

24 june – On the Jornado – 2

The War of the Rebellion
Volume 26 23

June 24.- Major Morrison reports an attack on Lieutenant Bargie and escort, on the Jornada, in which Lieutenant Bargie, while fighting gallantly, was killed. The conduct of Sergeants Pina and the two prisoners they had in charge, is highly praised.
June 26.- Major Morrison reports further in regard to the fight on the Jornada that Private Lucero, First New Mexico Volunteers, was killed.

18(19) july Rio Hondo – 1

The War of the Rebellion
Volume 26 24,25
July 19.- Lieutenant Juan Marques, First New Mexico Volunteers, while returning from Horse Head crossing of the Pecos with 15 men of Company A, First New Mexico Volunteers, was attacked at the Rio Hondo by about 50 Indians while in camp at that point. The
Indians gained possession of the camp, but were finally driven across the river, carrying with them their wounded. They soon after recrossed the river, and charged on the herd, but were again driven back with loss. In this charge Private Jose Chaves was killed. For several hours the fight was continued. The Indian force rapidly increased, and at last numbered some 200. The ammunition gave out, and the soldiers were ordered to break their rifles and make their escape, which they did. Lieutenant Marques reports the conduct of the following-named men as worthy of mention: Corporals [Blass] Brigaloa, and Jose Y. Gonzales, and Privates Santiago Torres, G. Romero, Antonio Archuleta, Jose D. Tresquez, and Jesus Lopez. All the public animals, including 10 mules, were lost in this affair. Indian loss, 6 killed.

July 19(20) – nr Paraje – 2
California  Civil War Rosters:
Johnson, Robert S. Private First Regiment of Infantry Company G
Killed in action with Apache Indians near Paraje, N.M., July 20, 1863.
Edward L. Watson Asst. Surgeon First Regiment of Infantry Officers
Killed by Indians Aug. 3, 1863.
The War of the Rebellion, Volume 26 25
July 19.- Lieutenant-Colonel McMullen’s ambulance was attacked by Indians near Paraje,
and Asst. Surg. E. L. Watson, First Infantry, California Volunteers, and Private
Johnson, Company G, First Infantry, California Volunteers, were killed.
The escort killed two Indians and wounded others. Colonel McMullen’s horse was captured
by the Indians. Our loss, 1 commissioned officer and 1 private killed; 1 horse lost.
Indian loss, 3 killed – wounded.

22 july Conchas Springs – 2

The War of the Rebellion
Volume 26 25,26

August 6.- Captain E. H. Bergmann reports that a party of Company I, First New Mexico Volunteers, in charged of a herd of beef-cattle, were attacked by a body of Navajoes on the 22nd of July, near Conchas Springs. The party consisted of Sergt. Jose Lucero and Privates Juan F. Ortiz and Jose Banneras, who fought the Indians from 11 a.m. until after sundown, killing and wounding several of them. The Indians succeeded in killing Sergeant Lucero and Private Ortiz. Private Banneras, being severely wounded by eight arrow shots, gathered up the muskets and pistols of his dead comrades and threw them into the springs. The Indians fractured his skull with rocks and left him for dead, but he recovered toward morning and made his way to Chaperito. The Indians drove off the cattle. (Number not stated.)

24 july Cook’s Canyon – 1

California  Civil War Rosters:

Queen, Jonathan C. Private 5 Cal Inf F
Killed in battle, July 24, 1863, at Cook’s Canon, N.M.

The War of the Rebellion
Volume 26 25

July 24.- Lieutenant John Lambert, Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers, reports that the Indians attacked a detachment under his command in Cook’s Canon. At the first fire, Sergeant Hance, of Company H, Fifth Infantry, was wounded in his shoulder and hand; soon after, Private Queen, of Company F, was mortally wounded. Two wagons were abandoned to the Indians, also 12 mules. Private Queen died before the fight ended

16 aug – 1

The War of the Rebellion
Volume 26 26
August 19.- Colonel Christopher Carson reports that he left camp near Canon Bonita, August 5, 1863, on a scout for thirty days. On the first day out, sent Sergeant Romero with 15 men after 2 Indian seen in the vicinity; he captured one of their horses; the Indians made their escape. On the night of the 4th instant, Captain Pfeiffer captured 11 women and children, besides a woman and child, the former of whom was killed in attempting to escape and the latter accidentally. Captain Pfeiffer’s party also captured two other children, 100 sheep and goats, and 1 horse. The Utes captured in the same vicinity 18 horses and 2 mules, and killed 1 Indian. Captain Pfeiffer wounded an Indian, but he escaped. On the 16th, a party who were sent for some pack-saddles brought in 1 Indian woman. At this camp the brave Major Cummings, First New Mexico Volunteers, was shot through the abdomen by a concealed Indian and died instantly. One of the parties sent out from this camp captured an Indian woman. Total Indians killed, 3; captured, 15; wounded, 1; 20 horses, 2 mules, and 100 sheep and goats captured. Troops, 1 commissioned officer killed.

28 aug Los Animos – 1

California  Civil War Rosters:

Dickey, George S. Private First Regiment of Infantry Company G
Killed in action with Apache Indians on the Rio Grande, near Los Animas Crossing, Aug. 28, 1863.

The War of the Rebellion
Volume 26 26,27

August 29.- Captain Henry A. Greene, First Infantry, California Volunteers, reports that the Indians attacked the mail stage on the Jornada, near the Point of Rocks, and captured 7 mules. As soon as the information was received, 15 mounted men were sent in pursuit, and 9 men detailed to escort the stage through. The mounted party, on coming in view of the Rio Grande, saw 3 Indians on the bank; the balance of the band were back in the brush; the 3 Indians were fired upon; one of them fell, but recovered again. A part of the command, under Lieutenant Fountain, charged across the river; the Indians ran and concealed themselves. The party then dismounted, and commenced to skirmish through the bushes. While on this duty, Private George S. Dickey was mortally wounded by the only shot fired by the Indians during the affair. Dickey saw an Indian jump into the river, and shot him; the Indian turned after being shot, and gave Dickey the wound which caused his death. Indian loss, 1 killed; 3 wounded. Our loss, 1 private killed.

8 nov nr Ft West – 1

California  Civil War Rosters:

Bay, Jacob Private First Regiment of InfantryCompany D
Killed by Indians near Fort West, A.T., Nov. 8, 1863.



January 3 – Puerco – Wagon master train – 1
Official Records of the War of Rebellion Vol 48 part 1
January 3. -Wagon-Master Russell’s train, en route to Fort
Canby, N. Mex., was attacked near the Puerco by about 150
Navajo Indians. Mr. Russell was killed; Mr. Strong and two
teamsters wounded. The three lead wagons were cut off and
twenty mules were taken by the Indians, together with some
corn, blankets, &c. This information was forwarded to the
commanding general of the department by Major John C.
McFerran, chief quartermaster, with the following remarks:
“Respectfully referred to the department commander for his
information. This wagon-master, Russell, is Powell Russell,
who entered the service of the quartermaster’s departments as
a teamster, a poor, illiterate boy, in 1853. By his honesty,
industry, modesty, truth, and energy he rose to be the principal
or head wagon-master in the department. This position he has
filled to the perfect satisfaction of every one, and has now fallen,
like a true man as he was, at his post and doing his duty. It will
be very, very difficult to replace him. ”

11 jan nr Ft Craig – (1)
The War of the Rebellion Volume 48 part 1, 900

January 8. -Mr. George Cooler, wagon and forage master at Fort Arizona, N. Mex., with ten infantry soldiers and a party of Mexican boy, citizens, while on a scout after Indians, recovered 1 Mexican boy, named Vincente Ubano, who was stolen by the Indians near the Pecos River, 1 rifle, and 58 goats. On the 11th instant came upon a party of Indians and succeeded in killing 1 and capturing 1 squaw and 1 child. In this skirmish two of Cooler’s party were wounded. One of them, Jose Garcia, died the next day. On the 12th found 7 horses and 1 mule and captured 2 Indian women.

Jan 24 – Woolsey – (1)
The War of the Rebellion Volume 48 part 1, 901
January 24. -A party of thirty Americans and fourteen Maricopa and Pimo Indians, under Colonel King S. Woolsey, aide to the governor of Arizona, attacked a band of Gila Apaches sixty or seventy miles northeast of the Pimo villages, and killed 19 of them and wounded others. Mr. Cyrus Lennon, of Woolsey’s party, was killed by a wounded Indian.

4? march San Francisco Rv – 1

California  Civil War Rosters:

Fisher, Joseph Private 1Cal Cav D
Died of wounds received in action with Indians at Woolsey’s Ranch, A.T., Mar. 4, 1864.

The War of the Rebellion Volume 48 part 1, 902

March 18. -Eight mounted Indians made an attack upon a Government herd at Cow Springs, N. Mex., and drove off 68 mules, 4 Government and 2 private horses. The Indians were pursued by Lieutenant H. H. Stevens, Fifth California Infantry, with nine, for a considerable distance, but they escaped with the stock. Major Edward B. Willis, First Infantry California Volunteers, with forty enlisted men, and fourteen citizens, fell in with a party of Apaches near the San Francisco River, Ariz. Killed 5 Indians and lost 1 man, Private Fisher, of Company D, First Cavalry California Volunteers.

History ArizonaVolume 3, 281:
“March 18.—Major Edward B. Willis, 1st Infantry California
volunteers, with forty enlisted men and fourteen citizens, fell
in with a party of Apaches near the San Francisco river,
Arizona, killed five Indians and lost one man,Private Fisher,
of company D, first cavalry, California volunteers.”

24 march nr Picho – 1

California  Civil War Rosters:

Douglas, James Private First Regiment of InfantryCompany B
Died at Fort Craig, N.M., March 24, 1864.
See First Infantry Donylas, James PrivateMarch 24, 1864. Near Picho, N.M. Killed by Indians.

May 3 nr. Prescott Sheriff Sage – 1
This page is dedicated to the fallen officers who made the ultimate sacrifice
and lost their lives while serving and protecting the citizens of Yuma County. 
Sheriff Cornelius Sage
Wednesday, May 3, 1865
Tour of Duty: 5 months
Sheriff Sage was shot and killed when he and two associates were ambushed by Yavapai Apache tribe members. The three were en route to Prescott, Arizona, on official business when the ambush took place.

4 may Doubtful Canyon – 2
California  Civil War Rosters:
Dosher, Henry J. Private 5 Cal Inf I
Killed in battle at Doubtful Canon, near Steins Peak,
A.T., May 4, 1864.
Webb, James R. Private 5 Cal Inf ID
Died at Fort Bowie, A.T., May 13, 1864.
Result from Doubtful Canyon?
The War of the Rebellion Volume 48 part 1, 903
May 3. -Lieutenant Henry H. Stevens, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, with a command of fifty-four men, California Volunteers, while on the march from Fort Cummings to Fort Bowie, Ariz., was attacked in Doubtful Canon, near Steen’s Peak, by about 100 Apache Indians. The fight lasted for nearly two hours and resulted in the killing of 10 Apaches, who were left on the ground, and wounding about 20. The troops lost in this affair, 1 man missing and 5 wounded, 1 mortally; 1 horse killed and 1 wounded.

Aug Rio Prieto – (1)

The War of the Rebellion Volume 48 part 1, 905
August. -Colonel King S. Woolsey reports that while on a scout after Indians near the Rio Prieto one of his men, named J. W. Beauchamp, was waylaid and killed by the Apache Indians.

Aug 25 Sacramento Mnt – 3
The War of the Rebellion Volume 48 part 1, 905/06
August 25. -Captain Francis McCabe, First Cavalry New Mexico Volunteers, reports that while on a scout after Indians in the Sacramento Mountains he detached a party under Lieutenant Henry W. Gilbert, of the same regiment, to follow the trail of the Indians. Lieutenant Gilbert took with him twenty men. The party, although warned by the guide, marched in a body directly into an ambush, when Lieutenant Gilbert was killed at the first fire. The guide Sanches and Private Ma. Sandoval were killed and 3 men wounded; 1 Apache killed and 5 wounded. This command were leading their horses when the attack was made. The men after the fall of their officer shamefully abandoned their horses. The Indians got the most of the horses and equipments.



Febr 17 – Ft Buchanan – 1
California  Civil War Rosters:
English, George. Private First Regiment of Cavalry Company L
Killed by Indians near Fort Buchanan, A.T., Feb. 17, 1865.
The War of the Rebellion Volume 50 part 1, 401/403
Fort Bowie, Ariz. Ter., February 25, 1865.
COLONEL: On the 17th instant the Apache Indians, to the number of about 100, attacked Fort Buchanan. They shot one soldier through the leg. The soldiers, after the Indians fired the rood, made their escape. The Indians got about 200 rations, suits of clothing of six men, 250 cartridges, six cavalry horses and equipments, and some arms from the cavalry detachment near the post. They murdered Mr. Wrightson and Mr. Hopkins. Missing, 1 soldier statined at Buchanan, supposed to be killed

2 march nr Prescott – 1

Ariz Board of Regents vol8, 128

“March 2nd, a soldier, name unknown, fell into their hands near Prescott, and was butchered.

26 may nr Wickenburg – 1
Ariz Board of Regents vol 8, 128
“May 26th, John Ryan, a soldier, was murdered near Wickenburg.

14 july Croton Springs – 1
California  Civil War Rosters:
Jones, John L. Private First Regiment of Cavalry Company L
Killed by Indians near Croton Springs, A.T., July 14, 1865.

21 july Skull Valley – 2
California  Civil War Rosters:
Long, Silas C. Private 7Cal Inf I
Killed by Indians at Skull Valley, A.T., July 21, 1865.

Whittig, John Private 7 Cal Inf I
Killed by Indians at Skull Valley, A.T., July 21, 1865. see Ariz Libr

July 22 east of Tubac – 3
California  Civil War Rosters:
William D. Kelly Sergeant 7Cal Inf E
Killed by Indians July 22, 1865, seventy miles east of Tubac, A.T.
Henry, John Private 7 Cal Inf E
Killed by Indians July 22, 1865, seventy miles east of Tubac, A.T. see Ariz Libr
Nuny, John Private 7 Cav Inf
July 22, 1865. Killed by Indians, seventy miles east of Yuma.
Volume 4 Ariz Board of Regents
On July 13th, 1865, Captain Messenger, with thirty men, left Tubac for a scout in
the Huachuca Mountains. On the 22d he and fifteen men were surrounded and
attacked by one to two hundred Indians. After about an hour’s fight the Indians
were driven off. Two of the soldiers were killed and one wounded
In 1865, as the war was drawing to a close, Capt. Hiram Messenger, of Campo Seco, led the Gold Diggers Regiment on a 651-mile-march from Southern California to Arizona, according to Manna.
While marching, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee surrendered and Abraham Lincoln was assassinated.
The Gold Diggers, nonetheless, continued to march until they came to the dusty, desert town of Tubac in the Arizona Territory.
A newspaper account says on July 13, Messenger sent Sgt. William Kelly and Pvt. John Henry, two Irishmen, to search for a missing citizen and a Pvt. Jacob Hicks, who had been missing.
But it turned out to be the Irishmen that needed help.
Hicks and the citizen returned to the camp alone, saying they heard gunfire a couple of miles from the camp.
Messenger and half of his regiment marched towards the gunfire, but were tricked and surrounded by 200 Apaches.
Armed with bows and arrows and two rifles stolen from the Irishmen, who had been captured, the Apaches surrounded the soldiers.
Messenger and his men got lucky. The summer desert sky closed in and a downpour caused the Indians’ arrows to flounder.
During the battle, 15 Apaches were killed, while only one of Messenger’s men was badly wounded.
The morning after the hour-and-a-half fight, Messenger resumed his search for the two missing men.
“He found their bodies, stripped and terribly mutilated,” wrote a correspondent in the Calaveras Prospect newspaper. “Henry had his head pounded in with a rock and 27 wounds on his body, evidently with a blunt lance after they had killed him. Kelly also had his head bruised but less wounds.”

22 nov Los Pinos – 2

California  Civil War Rosters:

George F. Edwards. Corporal First Battalion of Veteran Infantry Company C
killed by Indians at Los Pinos, N.M., Nov. 22, 1865.

Meigham, Henry. Private First Battalion of Veteran Infantry Company C
killed by Indians at Fort Craig, N.M., Nov. 22, 1865.

11 December Peoples Ranch – 1
Compilation of Indian Engagements from 1837-1866, Army War College
Dec 11, nr Peoples Ranch, Ariz, 5 Inf,det F, Cp Snyder, 1 enlisted men



Jan 17 – Oak Groves – 4
California  Civil War Rosters:
Daly, Thomas Private First Battalion of Veteran InfantryCompany G
killed by Apaches at Oak Grove, near Fort Cummings, N.M., Jan. 17, 1866, while on daily duty.
Devine, Charles. Private First Battalion of Veteran InfantryCompany G
killed by Apaches at Oak Grove, near Fort Cummings, N.M., Jan. 17, 1866, while on daily duty.
Hunter, Louis S. Private First Battalion of Veteran InfantryCompany G
killed by Apaches at Oak Grove, near Fort Cummings, N.M., Jan. 17, 1866, while on daily duty.
Ronan, Thomas. Private First Battalion of Veteran InfantryCompany G
killed by Apaches at Oak Grove, near Fort Cummings, N.M., Jan. 17, 1866.

February – 2

Ariz Board of Regents vol 4, 114

(Company F)
Feb.24th one non-com. and 2 privates on detached service to Date Creek. One corp. and 5 men attacked by Indians and 2 men killed, one wounded. After fight of 3 hours’ duration, the Indians were driven off. I consider that those men acted as bravely as men could under such circumstances.

26 February – 1
Ariz Board of Regents vol 4, 104

On the 26th Private Roque Ramirez had permission to go hunting, and after his return at roll call, went out fishing, and next morning was found dead in the river about one mile below the post. He was killed by Indians, and his arms, clothing and ammunition all taken
See Ariz Volunteers: company E

22 march Cottonwood – 4

Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891
March 22 Round Valley, or Cottonwood Springs, Ariz 14
Inf Cp Millar 2 officers & 2 enlisted men

Irish Deaths In the Frontier Army
Snowden Andrew 10/13 1865 Brooklyn, NY Down Co. Laborer 28.000 Hazel Brown Light 5′ 9″ B/3 14 Inf. Private DOWR-In Action Indians Ft. McDowell Arizona Territory 05/13 1866 Wounded 03/22 in action with Apaches at Cottonwood Springs. Died from “arrow wound of Brain.”

March 24? – near Ft. Wingate – 3
Two weeks (march 1865) later Carleton received a report
from Fort Wingate detailing another attack on troopers
escorting the mail. This time the expressmen were not so
Three soldiers fell in the assault, the fourth was missing
but later turned up unharmed at Cubero.

March 31 – Pimos Village – Walker – 1

1 may nr Cp Verde – 1

Ariz Board of Regents volume8, 129

“May 1st, John Broderick, a soldier, was shot and killed on the Rio Verde, near Camp Verde.

See Ariz Volunteers: Comp A

May 26 – Magdalena Canyon – 1
California  Civil War Rosters:
Barnett, Henry. Private First 1 CalCvCompany C
Killed by Indians, May 26, 1866, while en route from the Rio Grande to Fort Cummings, N.M.; body found near Magdalena Canon.

May 31 – Upper San Pedro – 1st Cav., G – 1
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
Smith James H. 12/07 1865 New Orleans, LA Cork Soldier 26.000
Blue Brown Dark 5′ 6 1/2″ G 1 Cav. Private Killed in Action Indians Upper San Pedro River, new post on Arizona Territory
05/31 1866

July 29 Camp Cady – 3/5
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians from Jan. 1, 1866,
to Jan. 1891
July 29, Cady,cp, Cal, 9InfdetD Lt Hardenbergh 3 killed
California Military Museum Camp Cady
An attempt was made to abandon the camp in 1866, but public and political pressure was too great. Hardly was the post back in business again when a party of Indians approached the fort in a hostile demonstration. Twenty troopers charged after them. Five soldiers were killed in an ambush set up in the dense undergrowth along the river.
Irish Deaths In the Frontier Army
Atkins Philip 12/16 1865 San Francisco, CA Cork Druggist 26.000 Grey Brown Fair 5′ 11 1/2” D 9 Inf. Private Killed in Action Indians nr. Camp Cady California 07/29 1866 Paiute Indians.

Aug 13 – Grape Vine Spring – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891
Aug 13 Grape Vine Spring, Skull Valley, Ariz – 14 Inf , B & 1 Ariz Inf, F,Lt Hutton 1 enlisted man killed
Ariz Board of Regents Volume 5, 114
August 13th, Lieut. Hutton, with 14 men and some 13 citizens, killed 23 Indians. Loss, one man killed and one wounded

Aug 25 betw Cp Mimbres and Ft Cummings – 1
California  Civil War Rosters:
Charles Williams. Farrier and Blacksmith 1Cal Cv, Company C
Killed by Indians Aug. 25, 1866, while en route from Fort Cummings to Camp Miembres, N.M.

Dec 11 – Grief Hill – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891
Dec 11 Grief Hill, Ariz – 14 Inf, det C – Cp Downey 1 enlisted man killed
December 1866: A musician with Company C was killed during an attack on Grief Hill.

December – south of Willows -Rangers under Hodges – 1
Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography
The rangers were quite succesful.
In late December they attacked a rancheria south of
The Willows, a station on the Hardyville-Prescott road,
killing 23 Indians with the loss of J. Hartman killed and
several wounded.



Jan 15 – Aquarius Mnt Yavapai Rangers – 1

Encyclopedia of Indian Wars 194

19 febr (18 march) nr Cp Bowie – 1

Deceased Military Personnel and Civilians at Fort Bowie:
Cassiers A. B. Fisher, 20, 1st CA Cavalry died of wounds on 19 Feb
1867 at Camp Bowie, AT, killed by Apache Indians.

Febr? nr Cp Verde – 2

History of Arizona Vol 8, 129:
“About this date two soldiers, named Harrington and
Duvall, of Co. B., 32nd Infantry, lost their lives near
Camp Verde.

18 april Rio Verde – 1

Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
18 apr Rio Verde, 8 Cav, B&I cap Williams, killed: 1 enl. m.
8 Regiment of Cavalry
Troop B:
The troop, in conjunction with Troop I, 8th Cavalry, engaged
a band of Apaches on the 16th and 17th of April, 1867, in the
Black Mountains of Arizona; in which encounter George W.
Drummond, saddler, was killed. Several Indians were killed
and wounded.

9 july nr Ft Sumner – 5

DEVINE, John, Pvt., 3rd U.S. Cav., killed with arrows in
a skirmish with the Navajos 7-9-1867
COOK, James, Pvt., 3rd U.S. Cav., fight with Indians
near Fort Sumner 7-9-1867
WHITE, Edward, Pvt., 3rd U.S. Cav., fight with Indians
near Fort Sumner 7-9-1867
KERR, William, Pvt., 3rd U.S. Cav., fight with Indians near
Fort Sumner 7-9-1867
LEE, John, Pvt., fight with Indians near Fort Sumner 7-9-1867
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
July 9 Ft Sumner, nr,3Cav, G&I, Lt Porter, killed: 5 enl. men

1 aug Big Bug Creek – 1
History of ArizonaVolume 8, p130:
“August 1st, they killed a soldier on Big Bug Creek.

3 aug Bell’s Canyon – 2
History of ArizonaVolume 8, p130:
August 3rd, two soldiers were killed in Bell’s Canyon.
Volume 5, p318:
In August, Charles Hadsell, known as Tennessee, and
two soldiers were killed on the road near Bowie. About the
same time Lieut. C. C. Carrol and John Slater were killed
near Bowie.

16 oct Afton Canyon(Cal) – 1
INDIAN WAR ACTIONS, Mojave Road Guide:
October 16, 1867, the mail buggy was passing over the trail
headed for Arizona.
There was one passenger Dr. Merril E. Shaw, an Army surgeon.
There was an escort of one soldier, not far from the Caves, the party was attacked without warning by 15 or 20 Indians.
Dr. Shaw was alive when the party arrived at Soda Springs,
but he was mortally wounded.

18 oct Sierra Diablo – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians from
Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Oct 18, Sierra Diablo, 3 Cv, D&K, copt Wilson, killed: 1 enl. m.

5 nov nr Cp Bowie – 1/2

Deceased Military Personnel and Civilians at Fort Bowie,
John C. Carroll, 1st Lt., 32nd US Infantry, died of wounds on
5 Nov 1867 at Camp Bowie, AT, killed by Apache Indians.
John Slater, 35, Lt., 5th CA Cavalry, died of wounds on
5 Nov 1867 at Camp Bowie, AT, killed by Apache Indians.

Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians from
Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Nov 5, nr Cp Bowie, only the lieutenant and one citizen

17 nov nr Ft Sumner – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians from
Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Nov 17, nr Ft Sumner, 37 Inf,F, killed: 1 enlist. m.

Dec 5 – Eagle Springs 9th C – 1
Fort Davis Soldiers’ Roster
Johnson, Nathan Pvt. F 9th Cav.
Died at Mount Eagle Spring, TX on 5 dec 1867 from action with Apaches Indians

Dec. 17 – Willow Grove – 8th Cav. – 1
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
Dugan Daniel 05/23 1867 St. Louis, MO Cork Co. Laborer 21.000
Blue Brown Fair 5′ 6 1/2″ K 8 Cav. Private DOWR-In Action Indians
Camp Willow Grove Arizona Territory 12/17 1867

Dec. 23 – nr Ft. Craig – 3rd Cav., B – 1
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
Gleason John 06/26 1865 Philadelphia, PA Limerick Porter
23.000 Blue Dark Light 5′ 10 1/2” B 3 Cav.
Private Killed in Action Indians nr. Ft. Craig New Mexico Territory 12/23 1867


31 march betw Willows&Cottonw – 2

History of Arizona Vol 8, 130
“March 31st, 1868, Indians attacked a mail party between the
Willows and Cottonwoods on the Prescott and Mohave road,
killed two soldiers, Corporal Troy and Private Glover

Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
March 21, nr Cp Willow Grove, 14 Inf E, Corp Troy, killed:
2 enlisted men

14 Infantry: 21march

April 18 – nr. Camp Goodwin – 32nd Inf. – 1
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
Connell John 09/20 1865 Brooklyn, NY Clare Soldier 25.000 Blue Dark Dark
5′ 6” B 32 Inf. Private Killed in Action Indians Camp Goodwin Arizona
Territory 04/18 1868 Died “of shot wound received at the hands of an Indian.”

26 may nr Cp Bowie – 2

Deceased Military Personnel and Civilians at Fort Bowie, By Betty Cook:
Robert King, 33, Private, D Co., 32nd US Infantry, died on 26 May 1868
at Camp Bowie, AT, captured and tortured to death by Apache Indians.
George Knowles, 23, Private, D Co., 32nd US Infantry, died on 26 May
1868 at Camp Bowie, AT, captured and tortured to death by Apache

May 30 Tonto Basin Lt.Col. Devin – 1
Chronological list of actions: 1 civilian killed

BOOKS of the SOUTHWEST, The University of Arizona Library, Volume 5
following report made by Brigadier General Thomas E. Devin
During one of the scouts one rancheria was found inhabited, and four Indians were killed while escaping across the river. On another occasion a party exploring a trail to the San Carlos were ambushed but the Indians were repulsed;
two fell but were carried off by their comrades; one soldier and two animals were wounded. The pack train, while on its return for the rations, was ambushed near the top of the ‘jump-off’ I had constructed down the mountain, and the pack master, Mr. Baker, was killed.

16 june betw McDowell&Reno – 4

Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
From jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
June 16, Toddy Mnts, 1 Cav E, serg Lemon, killed: 4 enlisted men

History of Arizona Vol 8, 130:
June 16th, between McDowell and Reno, four soldiers,
Sergeant Lemon and Privates Murphy, Merrill and Morrow, were killed.
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
Murphy James 01/24 1866 New York, NY Dublin Laborer 20.000 Grey Brown Fair 5′ 6″ E 1 Cav. Private Killed in Action Indians bet. Camp McDowell & Camp Reno Arizona Territory 06/16 1868

Murphy John 03/15 1867 Boston, MA Dublin Laborer 22.000 Hazel Dark Ruddy 5′ 8 1/2″ E 1 Cav. Private Killed in Action Indians bet. Camp McDowell & Camp Reno Arizona Territory 06/16 1868

23 july Williamson Valley Joachim – 1

History of Arizona Vol 8, 130
July 23rd, a soldier named Joachim was shot dead near
Williamson Valley

Aug 22 – Mimbres Mountains – 3rd Cav – 1
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
Baker Richard B. 01/05 1864 New York, NY Belfast Plasterer 20.000 Hazel Brown Ruddy 5′ 9″ K 3 Cav. Private Missing, presumed dead Indians Mimbres Mountains New Mexico Territory 08/22 1868 “Supposed to have been killed or captured while on scout by the Apache Indians….”

2 nov nr Wickenburg – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
nov 2, betw Wickenberg&Prescott, 14 Inf,H, mailescort,
killed: 1 enlisted man

History of Arizona Vol 8 , 131
“November 26th, they killed a soldier near Wickenburg

11 dec Willow Grove Az Mj Price 8Cv ChrL – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Dec 11, Willow Grove, 8 Cv,K, killed 1 enlisted man


25 jan Juniper Mnt – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Jan 25, Kirkland’s Cr, Juniper M, 8 Cv, E&K, cp Young
Killed 1 enlisted m.

Febr 27 – Camp Grant – (2)
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Febr 27, nr Cp Grant, 14 Inf B, killed: 2 civilians
wounded 1 enlisted man
History of Arizona Vol 8 , 137
“February 26th, 1869, they murdered two men, Price and Davis, near Camp Grant.

14 april Cienega – 2
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Apr 14, Cienega, 32 Inf, E, wounded: 2 enl. m.
History of Arizona Vol 8 , 137
“April 13, seven Mexicans murdered near Camp Crittenden.
“April 14th, near same place, two soldiers were murdered.

Apr 20 – near Cp Crittenden – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Apr 20, nr Cp Crittenden, 32 Inf, H, killed: 1 enlist man

May 2 – S Augustine – 2
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
May 2, nr San August., killed: 2 enlisted men

May 6 – Grief Hill – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
May 6, Grief Hill (nr Cp Verde), 8 Cv, B; 14 Inf, C
Trainguard wounded: 5
14 Infantry:
May 6, 1869, in an attack on a train near Grief Hill,
one private of the regiment was killed, but the Indians
were so impressed by the operations of breech-loaders,
then used on them for the first time, that they regularly
In May, 1869, the Apache Indians attacked two TJ. S. Government teams,
seven miles from Camp Crittenden, killing one U. S. soldier and wounding
another, and captured ten mules.
May 1869: Infantry was attacked at the base of Grief Hill while escorting three supply wagons drawn by 18 bullocks (steers or young bulls). Five men were wounded; a private died the following day.
JOSEPH MELVIN, sworn: Residence near Camp Verde, Yavapai County.
That early in the year 1869 witness and J. J. Gibson were attacked by seventy-five
Indians, at Ash Creek. Gibson was mortally wounded
That soon after the last mentioned attack, the Indians attacked two citizens
and one soldier near ” Grief Hill,” killing the soldier, mortally wounding one
citizen, and capturing one mule and two pistols.

May 7 – S Augustine Pass – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
May 7 S Augustine Pass, 3 Cav, K, Corp. Younge, killed: 1 enl. m.

New York Times 1869
The Pacific Coast
A Train of Government Stores Captured by Arizona Indians-Additional Outrages
San Francisco, Cal., Saturday, June 12
…about three hundred Indians attacked a train of nine wagons and eighty mules, laden with Government stores for Camp Grant.
After resistance of ten hours the teamsters were joined by a small force of soldiers; but the Indians compelled them to abandon the train with the loss of three men killed, and three wounded.
The loss of the Indians was not known

16 june Toll Gate – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
June 16, Toll Gate, 8 Cv, E&F, Lt Jerome, killed: 1 enl. man

July – between Prescott and Date Creek mailcarriers – 2
In July, 1869, four soldiers and one citizen, carrying the United States
mail, between’ Prescott and Date Creek, were attacked by Indians.
Two soldiers were killed and the citizen wounded,
Yavapai County north of Wickenburg

July 3 – San Pedro Crossing — 32nd Inf., C – 1
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
O’Donnell Maurice 04/06 1868 New York, NY Waterford Miller 28.000 Blue Light Fair 5′ 10″ C 32 Inf. Private Killed in Action Indians San Pedro Crossing Arizona Territory 07/03 1869

(between Sierra Vista and Tombstone)

6 july Hacquahalla Mnt – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
July 6, Hac qua-halla water, 1 Cv, E, 8Cv, C, lt Mc Cleave
Wounded: 1
8 Cavalry: TROOP C.
On the 6th of July, 1869, Lieutenant McCleave, with a detachment
of 17 men at Hacquahalla, was attacked by a large body of Indians.
After a severe engagement the Indians were driven back with a loss of seven
of their number killed and ten wounded. Private James Howell was mortally
History of Arizona, vol 3, 279-80
There was a soldier standing behind a rock, and an Indian shot at him.

26 aug Toll Gate – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Aug 26, Tonto Plateau, nr Toll Gate, 8 Cav, E,F&K
Lt Carrick killed: 1 enl. man
8 Cavalry, TROOP E
Lieutenant Carrick, with detachment of 23 men of Troops E, F and K, between the Aqua Frio and Rio Verde, near Toll Gate, A. T., encountered a band of Indians on the 25th of August, 1869, and engaged them, killing 6, wounding several, capturing 1, and destroying a large amount of property, On the 26th a rancheria was surprised and 2 Indians killed. This detachment was attacked by a party of about 100 Indians, seven miles from Toll Gate. Private Eberhard was killed.

Oct 5 Dragoon Mnt 21th Inf mailescort – 4
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
Oct 5, Dragoon Spr, 21 Inf, D, killed 4 enlisted men
Chiricahua Memoires vol8

Oct 20 Chiricahua Mnt Capt. Bernard – 3
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Oct 20, Chiricahua Mnt, 1 Cv, G, 8 Cv, G, capt Bernard Killed: 2 enlisted men
8 Cavalry, Troop G:
Lieutenant Lafferty with a detachment of 21 men (in conjunction with Troop G, 1st Cavalry,
Captain Bernard) encountered a large band of hostiles at Chiricahua Pass, A. T., October 20,
1869. Lieutenant Lafferty was very seriously wounded and Sergeant Stevens
and Private Fuller were killed,
History of Arizona, vol 8, 27-28
The troops were placed about thirty yards from the ledge occupied by the Indians, which enabled them to shoot arrows at any person who might show himself. Here two men were killed and one wounded.
Irish Deaths In the Frontier Army
Collins Thomas 10/01 1869 Camp Bowie, AZ Limerick Tailor 30.000 Grey Brown Ruddy 5′ 5 3/4″ G 1 Cav. Private Killed in Action Indians Tex Canyon, Chiracahua Mountains Arizona Territory 10/20 1869 2 The action he died in was fought on 10/19. Did he die of wounds received or was he wounded and left for the Apache as the bodies were not recovered until later?
Fuller Stephen S. 12/06 1866 New York, NY [ ? ] Soldier 31.000 Blue Brown Fair 5′ 9 3/4″ C 8 Cav. Sergeant Killed in Action Indians Chiricahua Pass Arizona Territory 10/20 1869 “Lieutenant Lafferty with a detachment of 21 men (in conjunction with Troop G, 1st Cavalry, Captain Bernard) encountered a large band of hostiles at Chiricahau Pass A. T., October 20, 1869. Lieutenant Lafferty was very seriously wounded and Sergeant Stevens and Private Fuller were killed, Private Elwood was serverely wounded. The number of Indians killed and wound was supposed to be large.”

Dec 11 – Camp McDowell 1st Cavalry, E – 1
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
Darragh Joseph 06/29 1867 New York, NY Antrim Cooper 21.000 Blue Brown Fair 5′ 3 1/4″ E 1 Cav. Private DOWR-In Action Indians Camp McDowell Arizona Territory 12/11 1869 Originally had been assigned to F/14 inf.

26 dec Sanguinara Canyon – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Dec 26, Sanguinara Canon, 3Cv, F; Lt Cushing; wounded: 1
Sheridan’s Record of Engagements 1868-1882, 25:
Frank Yeaton, 3d Cav, received severe wounds, from the effects
of which he afterwards died


12 jan Guadaloupe Mnt Cpt Dodge 9Cv Ind Engagm Ft Davis – 2
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Jan 20, Delaware Cr, Guadaloupe Mnt, 9Cv, CDIK, capt Dodge
wounded: 2

Indian War Engagements Involving Troops from Fort Davis:
Captain Francis S. Dodge, 9th Cavalry, with a command of 200 men
composed of Companies A, C, D, H, I, and K, 9th Cavalry, attacked
a Mescalero Apache village near the headwaters of Delaware Creek
in the most inaccessible region of the Guadalupe Mountains.
The attack on January 12 drove the warriors from the field.
Dodge placed Indian casualties at 10 dead while suffering 2 soldiers
killed and 1 wounded

7 march betw Cp Reno&McDowell Ar Libr 140 – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
March 9; Reno road, 8 Cv, I; cpt Bernard: wounded: 2

History of Arizona, vol 8, 140:
“March 7th, the Paymaster’s clerk, en route from Camp
Reno to Camp McDowell, with an escort of thirteen soldiers,
was wounded, and one of the escort killed.

April 17 – Miller Ranch – 1
History of Arizona, vol 8, 140:
“April 17th, Indians visited the ranch of J. Miller at the
Cienega, and killed one of the soldiers stationed there.
W. A. SMITH, sworn : He is a farmer and resides at the Cienega in
Pima County, Arizona; In the spring of 1870 a U. S. soldier, named
Bernard Hogan, was shot dead in the door of the house in which a picket
guard was quartered.
JOHN MILLER, sworn : Besides in Pima County:
In May, 1870, they killed a United States soldier at the Cienega Station,
and a cow belonging to witness, in sight of the station.

4 june Cp Verde – 1

History of Arizona, vol 8, 134:
“June 4th, Indians attacked the Government herd at
Camp Verde, killed the corporal in charge of the herd,
and drove away twelve animals.

Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
June 2; CopperCanon; 24 Inf. Post guard; killed 1 enl. man
Camp Verde

1 aug Skirmish Canyon – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Aug 1; Apache Mnt; 3Cv,F&1Cv,K; Lt Cushing
Killed: 1 enlisted man

History of Arizona, vol 8, 102:
Lieutenant Cushing, with a company, left Camp Grant
in pursuit of the hostiles, whom they followed for several
days, going over the ground where the city of Globe stands
to-day. They overtook a part of the Indians and in trying
to run down two of them, they had one man killed.

Aug 18 – Between Cienega& SPedro – 2
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Aug 18; Mescal Ranch; 21Inf,D; mailescort;
Killed: 2 enlisted men & 1 civilian
History of Arizona, vol 8, 142:
“August 18th, mail stage attacked by Indians halfway
between the Cienega, and the San Pedro; murdered
Wm. Burns, driver, John Collins, stage superintendent,
and two soldiers of Co. D, 21st Infantry.
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
Moore Lawrence D 21 Inf. Private Killed in Action Indians Mescal Ranch Arizona
Territory 08/18 1870 2 “Killed by Apache Indians while escorting the U.S. Mail
from Camp Bowie to Tucson, A. T.”

Aug – near Walnut Grove mail carriers – 1
In August, 1870, two U. S. soldiers were attacked, near Walnut Grove, while they were carrying
the II. S. mail ; one was killed, one wounded, and the mail lost.


Sept. 3 – nr Ft. Stanton 8th Cavalry, B – 1
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
McGrath John B 8 Cav. Private Killed in Action Indians nr. Ft. Stanton New Mexico
Territory 09/03 1870
Chronological list of Actions with Indians:

Oct. – 1
In October, 1870, a U. S. soldier and a citizen, in charge of the U. S. mail,
were killed, and the horses and mail captured all of the foregoing depredations
were committed by the Apache Indians



The Indians killed Townsend some time after; shot him at
long range, but didn’t dare to go near him to get his horse.
The faithful animal stayed with him several days, then went
home. They found the body by back tracking the horse.
Townsend had seen signs of a large party of Indians in the
country, and, having no neighbors to go with him, he went
after them single-handed, as he had done many times before.
In all he killed thirty-five Apaches in the five years that he
had lived on the Agua Fria River.

15 febr Pinal Mnt – 1
History of Arizona, vol 8, 145:
“February 15th, Indians attacked Lieutenant Riley
and ten men while guarding a government herd, near
Infantry Camp in the Pinal Mountains, killed one soldier,
wounded two others, and captured about seventy head of
mules and a number of cattle.

Febr. 23 – nr. Present Clifton – Capt. Bullard (volunteers) – 1
The Leading Facts of New Mexico History, p 435

March 10 betw Cp Grant&Pinal – 1
History of Arizona, vol 8, 145:
“On the same day Indians attacked the train of Manuel
Ynigo between Camps Grant and Pinal, killed one soldier,
one Mexican, and captured sixteen mules.
Conquest of Apacheria, p85

March 14 – Infantry Camp – (2)
History of Arizona, vol 8, 146:
On the 14th, Hinds & Hooker’s herds, at Infantry
Camp was attacked; two herders were killed and their
arms captured by the savage assailants.

28 march Gila River – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
March 28, GilaRv; 3Cv,K; cpt Russell;killed:0; wounded:0

History of Arizona, vol 8, 208:
Captain Russell who, with a small force, had engaged Cochise
with about a hundred and fifty well armed, well drilled warriors,
about twelve miles from the crossing of the San Pedro, near what
was afterwards known as Benson.
Captain Russell had about eighteen men in the engagement,
one of whom was killed and one wounded.

April 13 San Pedro Raid posse – 3
Fort Bowie, Arizona: combat post p126, note 47:
San Pedro Valley Raid
McKenzie killed first, on April 13, prompting five others to gave chase.
Cochise turned on his pursuers killing Chapin, Long and Unter
Shadows at dawn
SAN PEDRO, April 13th, 1871.–The Indians attacked the lower part of this
settlement to-day, and killed Mr. Alex. McKinsey, took off a yoke of oxen,
one horse and did considerable other damage about the place. The Indians who
attacked McKinsey, were four in number.
A small party mounted and followed the trail.
When about four miles from this place, the Apaches were reinforced to about
one hundred strong, attacked the pursuing party, killed H.C. Long, Egeard Unter,
and Oury Chapin–latter of the Cienega Station; they also killed one horse and
captured two more, took three pistols and three guns.
Full text of “Treasure land : a story”
“Yesterday the Indians attacked McKensey’s ranch, on the San Pedro,
murdered him and drove off his stock.
A party of settlers followed and overtook them, and found them reinforced
by about 100 from the military feeding posts.
In the fight that followed, H. C. Long, Owry Chapin and K.uvard Unter were killed,
and the Indians escaped.”

May 5 – Whetstone Mountains – 3
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
May 5; Whetstone Mnt; 3Cv, F; Lt Cushing;
Killed: 2, 1 wounded
History of Arizona, vol 8, 147/166:
April 5th, Lieutenant Howard B. Cushing,
W. H. Simpson, and a soldier named Green;
killed by Indians in the Whetstone Mountains.
Lieutenant Cushing was afterwards killed by the Indians,
an account of which, given by Bourke, follows:
“On the 5th of May, 1871, Lieutenant Howard B. Cushing,
Third Cavalry, with several civilians and three soldiers,
was killed by the Chiricahua Apaches
Encyclopedia of Indian Wars p250: 3

13 july Cienega de Los Pinos – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
July 13, 21 Inf,G,cp Smith; killed: 1 enl. man

History of Arizona, vol 8, 148:
“July 11th or 12th, a company of infantry, under
Captain Smith, was attacked by a band of Cochise’s
Indians between the Cienega and Rio San Pedro;
one private, W. H. Harris, was killed, and three wounded.
Fort Bowie, Arizona: combat post p133
July 18
Cochise’s men faced the advance head-on, engaging the soldiers
in a pitched fight before finally giving way under the disciplined
fire of the troops. The Apaches left behind 25 dead warriors and
Smith claimed another thirty or forty were wounded.
His own loss was one soldier killed and three wounded.
A civilian traveling with the command also was wounded.
National Park Service Task Agreement J1233040013
July 18, 1871
Cochise attacks a company of the Twenty-first Infantry at Ciénaga de los Piños. 25 warriors are killed. The troops have 1 killed and 3 wounded.
Thrapp 1974:137-138

July 19 – Bear Springs near Camp Bowie – Lt. Drew – (2)
Chron. List of actions
killed; 2 civilians
Books of the Southwest ????
July 20th, Indians captured the Government herd at Camp Bowie,
killed the herder, one McDougall, and wounded a soldier named Foley.
Fort Bowie, Arizona: combat post p133-34
The Company arrived at the post that night only to be summoned to arms the
very next afternoon when the Apaches raided the beef’s contractor herd near
Bear Spring, just a half mile southeast of the fort.
At about three o’clock some 100 to 150 warriors assailed the civilian herders
killing the butcher and another man and driving off the cattle.
….Serg. Farley wounded (after pursuit)

October 26 – Horseshoe Canon Capt. Russell 3rd Cav. – 2
Chron. List of action
killed: 1 civilian
New York Times Archives November 25, 1871
THE APACHES.; Cachise Declared to be Leading His Warriors to
Successful Battle Another Man Killed and One Wounded.
Had Capt. , when fired upon. (one man killed and one mortally
wounded, out of twenty-seven men,) attempted to retreat, or
become at all demoralized, not a man would have not /out of
that canon alive
…Robert H. Whitney, citizen, acting as volunteer guide …
was killed at the first fire, and one soldier, named Blockhouse,
was badly wounded during the fight.


17 april nr Cp Apache 21 Inf ChrL – 1

4 may betw Tuscon&Cp Bowie mail ChrL – 1

Aug. 27 – Davidson Canyon – Lt Stewart 5Cv – 2

Chron. List of actions
Making Peace with Cochise p150
The Apaches killed Stewart and captured (Corp.) Black whom they
subsequently tortured to death.
Conquest of Apacheria p125-26
No. 2377, CLASS OF 1871.
Killed by Indians, August 27th, 1872, in Arizona Territory.
LIEUTENANT REID T. STEWART was born in Erie, Pennsylvania, March
25th, 1850. He was educated at the Philadelphia High School, and had
completed the course at that institution when he entered the Military Acad-
emy in 1867. He graduated very creditably in 1871, and was assigned to
the Fifth Cavalry, joining that regiment, as it was on its way to Arizona, in
December of the same year. He served for a short time at Camp Lowell,
A. T., and was then ordered with his company to Camp Crittenden, at
which post he was serving at the time of his death.
He had been ordered to Tucson, A. T. as the Judge Advocate of a Court-
martial about to assemble there, and while en route to that place, was way-
laid and killed by a band of hostile Indians, August 27th, 1872.
(Lieut. George B. Davis, U. S. A.

30 sept nr Cp Crittenden Az Lt Stewart 5Cv ChrL – 4
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
Walsh John 05/20 1872 Boston, MA Limerick Teamster 22.000 Brown Dark Fair 5′ 8 1/4″ F 5 Cav. Private Killed in Action Indians Sonorita Valley Arizona Territory 09/30 1872
Stewart George 07/01 1870 Boston, MA Dublin Clerk 32.000 Blue Brown Light 5′ 6” F 5 Cav. Sergeant Killed in Action Indians Sonoita Valley Arizona Territory 09/30 1872 Killed three miles from Camp Crittenden.

25 nov Red Rocks Az Cp Adam 5Cv ChrL – 1

28 dec Salt River Canon Cp Brown 5Cv ChrL Pima scout – 1
volume 3, 300


Near Fort Bliss – 1
On the Trail of Buffalo Soldiers
Serg. Wilks with 12 others carrying the mail to Fort Bliss 1873, attacked by Apaches
driven off after Pvt. Johnson was killed
Voices of the Buffalo Soldier: Records, Reports, and Recollections of p41-42

22 jan Tonto Cr Az Lt Michler 5Cv ChrL – 1

May 27 – San Carlos Lt Almy – 1
No. 2196.-CLASS OF 1867.
Killed by Indians, May 27, 1873, Arizona Ter., aged 37.
LIEUTENANT JACOB ALMY was born in New Bedford, Mass., December
21, 1842. He served during the war of the rebellion in the Thirty-third
Regiment of Infantry of the Massachusetts Volunteers, and was one of those
selected from the Volunteer service by President Lincoln for appointment to
the Military Academy.
He was a graduate of the Class of 1867, and was assigned to a company of
the 5th Cavalry, then serving in Tennessee. Accompanying his regiment to
Nebraska, in 1868, he participated in the campaign then in progress against
the hostile bands of Sioux, and was present at the engagement of Summit
Springs, in 1869 He accompanied the regiment to Arizona, in 1871, and
commanded his company during the winter campaign of 1872-73.
At its close he was placed in charge of the Indian scout at the San Carlos
reservation, and while upon this duty was brutally murdered by one of the
reservation Indians, May 17th, 1873

July 13 – Canada Alamosa Lt Chilson 8CavC – 2
Captain Chilson, with 10 men, left Fort Selden on June 9, 1873, and after
four days and four nights riding, overtook and engaged a party of Indian
marauders who had committed depredations at Sheddo Ranch, killing 3,
and capturing 12 horses and 1 mule. Corporal Frank Bratling was killed in
this engagement.
Fort McRae Cemetery
Sierra County, New Mexico
O’Toole, Patrick, b. from Ohio, d. Aug 20, 1873, age: 22yrs, 1st. Sgt. ‘h’ Troop 8th Cal,
Died from gunshot wound that penatrated the cranium. Inflicted near Canada Alamosa, NM
Bratling Frank Germany Jul 13 1873 26yrs Corp. “C” Troop 8th Cal.
Received Medal of Honor 1873.
Died from gunshot wound inflicted by Indians near Canada Alamosa NM.
Encyclopedia of Indian Wars 269:1

17 sept Cave Creek – 1


april Sulphur Springs – 1
Deceased Military Personnel and Civilians at Fort Bowie,
By Betty Cook:
Daniel Wallace, Private, G Co., 6th US Cavalry, died in Apr 1876
at Sulphur Springs, AT, killed by Apache Indians.

Fort Bayard see History – 2



17 sept Bear Cr NM Lt Pewrrine Ind Scouts ChrL – (1?)


30 april Ojo Caliente NM Ind Scout Couriers ChrL – (1?)

May 29 Black Range Cp Beyer 9Cv C&I – 1
On the Trail of Buffalo Soldiers
Dorsey Frank, Private, M 9th Cav.
Killed in action against Victorio, Mimbres Mountain, 28 May 1879

4 sept Ojo Caliente 9Cv docBlackSold,Amb Mass Canyon – 5(3)

8 sept Las Animas River Lt Hugo 9 Cv docBlackSold – 1

18 sept Las Animas River Cl Dudley 9 Cv docBlacksold,AmbMassCn – 6
Encyclopedia of Indian Wars 326: 6
On the Trail of Buffalo Soldiers
Freeland A.
1879 Sept 19 Las Animas, wounded in action
with private Caumb wounded in action.
Caumb later died of wounds; source
Hamilton, History of Ninth Cavalry

26-30 sept Ojo Caliente NM Mj Morrow 6&9Cv ChrL – 1

29/30 sept Cuchillo Negro River Mj Morrow 9C docBlacksold – 2
13 oct Lloyd’s Ranch NM 3&5 Cv ChrL – 6

27 oct Guzman Mnt M Mj Morrow 9C docBlacksold – 1(1?)


12 Jan. Rio Percho Mj Morrow 9C Blacksold – 1
Trail Buffalo Soldiers, p121,151:
privates: James & Gross

17 Jan. San Mateo Mj Morrow 9C Blacksold(LtFrench) – 1

12 febr Pu Cr NM sg Glover 2 Cv ChrL – 1
5 april Hembrillo Canyon Cp Carroll 9C Hembrillo Battlefield – 2

April Eagle Creek Lawmen – 2
Gerald F. Greaghe Apr 1880 Apache Az age 47 b Ir. killed by Indians, lawman
James Richmond Apr 1880 Apache Az age 38 b unk, killed by Indians, lawman
Volume 6 Chapter 8 History of Arizona
Of those whose loss I keenly felt, owing to close associations, were Paddy Creagh,
deputy sheriff, and James Richmond, who were killed on Eagle Creek while
returning from Clifton and the Gila Valley where they had been to assess the
property which then belonged in Apache County.

7 may Ash Creek Valley Ar Cp Kramer 6Cv ChrL – 1
Burial Register – Camp (Ft.) Apache, Arizona Territory
Griffin, Daniel Sergt. E. 6th Cav May 7, 1880 killed in action with Apache

may San Francisco M 9Cv Blacksold – 2?

5 june Cook’s Canyon Mj Morrow 9C Blacksold – 2?

11/12 juni Ojo Viego Tx Lt Mills Pueblo scouts(Guide) ChrL – (1??)

July 30 – Rocky Ridge – 1
Chronological List of actions:
July 30, Rocky Ridge, or Eagle Pass, Tex, 10 Cav, A, C, D&G,
& Ind. Scouts, Col Grierson; killed 1 enlisted man
Fort Davis Soldiers’ Roster:
Davis, Martin Pvt. C 10th Cav.
Killed in action with Apache Indians on 30 july 1880
On the Trail of Buffalo Soldiers
Davis Martin, Private, C 10th Cav.
Killed at Eagle Springs 30 July 1880

3 aug – 1
Fort Davis Soldiers’ Roster:
Tockes, George Pvt. C 10th Cav. Killed in action
with Apache Indians on 3 aug1880

4 aug Guadaloupe Mnts – 1
Chronological List of actions:
Aug 4, Guadaloupe Mnts, Tex, 10Cav, F; serg Richardson
killed: 1 enlisted man
Regimental Returns, 10th Cavalry, August 1880 Company F
Teas detachment of Company under Sergeant , in action with
Indians on Aug. 4, in which private William Taylor of was killed,

6 aug Rattlesnake Spr – 2
Chronological List of actions:
Aug 6 Rattlesnake Spr, Tex, 10 Cav det, 24 Inf, H; Cp Gilmore
Regimental Returns, 10th Cavalry, August 1880 Company C
On the field, Texas. Took part in action with hostile Indians. Aug. 6
at Rattlesnake Springs, Texas. a part of the Battalion engaged under
command of horses, Capt. Vale were lost , one killed in action
on Aug. 6. While Capt. with was in pursuit of the Indians, a party one or
two was in the firing at the Indians, which one of the was shot and killed.

Aug 6 – Rattlesnake Canon 10th C – 1
Chronological List of actions:
Aug 6, Rattlesnake C, Tex, 10Cav,BCGH; Cp Carpenter; killed: 0
Fort Davis Soldiers’ Roster:
Hardy, Wesley Pvt. H 10th Cav. “Missing in action” on 6 aug 1880
in engagement with Victorio’s band
Regimental Returns, 10th Cavalry, August 1880 Company H
Aug. 6 participate in an engagement with Victorio’s band with Companies
B, C, and G, 10th Cavalry, under command of Captain Carpenter, 10th
Cavalry, the Indians being repulsed and fleeing to the mountains—
Private Wesley Hardy missing in action.

Aug 9 – nr. Old Ft. Quitman – General Byrne – 1
BYRNE, JAMES J. (1842-1880). United States army officer, was born in Ireland and
moved to New York at an early age. On July 24, 1862, he was commissioned
a first lieutenant and appointed adjutant of the 163d New York Infantry.
He left the regiment on December 11, 1862, but on February 24, 1864,
was appointed colonel of the Eighteenth New York Cavalry.
As a member of Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks’s Army of the Gulf, he saw
extensive action in Louisiana during the Red River campaign of 1864.
Byrne was brevetted to brigadier general for gallantry at the battles of Pleasant Hill
and to major general for his conduct at the battles of Moore’s Plantation
(May 5-6, 1864) and Yellow Bayou (May 18, 1864), both brevets being
issued on March 13, 1865. According to a report in the Fort Worth Democrat
(see FORT WORTH STAR-TELEGRAM), he was the youngest general in the
United States Army. He was mustered out of volunteer service 5/ 3/1866.
Was killed by an attack by the Apache Victorio and buried near Fort Quitman but later re-interred in Fort Worth 1880.
900 Miles on the Butterfield Trail By A. C. Greene p248
On August 9, 1880, Ed Walde, stage driver, started out (from the mail station near Fort Quitman to Fort Davis) on his drive with General Byrne, retired army officer, occupying the rear seat of the coach.
The stage entered the box-like pass (Quitman) – an ideal place for an Indian ambuscade.
Walde had driven partly through this pass when, at a short bend in the road, he came suddenly upon old
Victorio and his band of one hundred warriors.
The Indian advance-guard fired on the coach immediately, and at the first volley General Byrne was fatally
wounded, one bullet striking him in the breast and a second passing through his thigh.

Sept 1 Aqua Chiquita serg Robinson – 2

On the Trail of Buffalo Soldiers p268
Smith Robert With detachment attacked at Aqua Chiquita, Nm
Privates Robert Smith and Daniel Stanton killed.
Source: Hamilton, History of the Ninth Cavalry
Attacked by Apaches , Aqua Chiquita Canyon 1880 Sept
Source Billington NM Buffalo’s Soldier p97-98
Died Sept 4

7 sept nr Ft Cummings – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Sept 7, nr Ft Cummings, 4 Cv, cp Parker killed: 1 enlisted man

28 oct Ojo Caliente T Srg Perry 10Cv Amb Mass Can – 7

Chronological List of actions: killed 5 enlisted men

Buffalo Soldiers & Chief Victorio:
Perhaps the most notable encounter between the Apaches and their
pursuers occurred in Hudspeth County on October 28, 1880, just two
weeks after Victorio’s death, when the Apaches killed seven “Buffalo
( Historical Marker:)
at least five buffalo soldiers were reported slain in the attack
and were buried where they fell. They were: Carter Burns,
George Mills, William Backus, Jeremiah Griffin, and James Stanley.
Two soldiers, Scott Graves and Thomas Rach, were reported missing.
Their bodies were said to have been found and buried with their
comrades weeks later. The seven graves were relocated in this vicinity
in the 1960s.


W.S. Sterling killed by Apaches in Arizona – 1
The courthouses of Texas: a guide 299
Handbook of Texas Online
STERLING, W. S. (?-ca. 1881). W. S. Sterling, buffalo hunter, rancher, and Indian fighter, settled on Sterling Creek in what is now Sterling County probably at least as early as 1858, when the creek was identified by his name in a surveyor’s field notes. He is known to have camped in the area in the early 1860s while he hunted buffalo for hides, which he shipped to Fort Concho. In 1863 the Fort Worth Gazette stated that “Captain” Sterling was “an old frontiersman without fear and was distinguished for his unselfish devotion to the cause of justice and humanity. The Indians feared him for his cool courage and the deadly crack of his Winchester.”
After leaving Sterling County possibly about 1881, he became a United States marshal in Arizona, where he was ambushed and killed by Apache Indians near Fort Apache. Sterling County, Texas, established in 1891, and its county seat, Sterling City, were named in his honor. The remains of a half-dugout, identified by other buffalo hunters as Sterling’s abode, were an early county landmark for many years.

Jan. 24 Canada Alamosa – 9th Cav Serg. Ingoman – 1
On the trail of the of the Buffalo Soldier p145
Ingoman, Madison
Ambushed while commanding wagon train escort of six privates between
Fort Craig and Camp Ojo Caliente, Jan. 1881.
Private William Jones severely wounded and died next day
Source Billington, New Mexico Buffalo’s Soldiers 101

29 april Mix line Lt Maney 9Cv – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:

Apr 29, nr Mex Line, 9 Cav&Ind Sc., Lt Maney,
Killed: 1 enlisted man

Aug. 1 Red Canyon – militia – 1
Chronological List of Actions:
Aug 1; Red Canyon killed: 1 citizen
The Buffalo Soldiers: A Narrative of the Black Cavalry in the West p235:
Ranchers in the area formed a posse of thirty-six men in the naive belief that they could
do better than the regular troops and marched into the San Mateos to beard the Apaches.
The found the trail and followed it into Red Canyon and into an ambush.
When the firing was over one rancher was dead, seven were wounded, and Nana had all
their horses.

12 aug Carrizo anon Cp Parker 9C Blacksold – 2
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Aug 12 Carrizo Canon, 9 Cv, Cap Parker, killed:
2 enlisted men

Aug 16 Cuchillo Negro – 2
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Aug 15 Rio Cuchillo Negro, 9 Cv,I,Lt Valios, killed; 0, Wounded: 3
Moses Williams:
On 16 Aug 1881 Lt. Gustavus Valois, and troop I, 9th
Cavalry, engaged in a running battle with 50 Indians near
Cuchillo Negro, in New Mexico. Two soldiers were killed
Soldiers have proud past: The men defied a hail of bullets
from the Indians and rescued the wounded soldiers.
Encyclopedia of Indian Wars
p 340: 2 enlisted men were slain
Death in the desert p203: 2

Aug 19 – McEver’Ranch – Lt Smith – 5/6
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
Aug 19, Mc Evers’Ranch, 9 Cv, B,F&citiz volunt, Lt Smith,
Killed: 1 officer, 3 enl. men & 1 citizen
Fort Bayard&Buff Soldiers: 5 killed
Voices of the Buffalo Soldier p98:
On August 19th, Lieutenant G. W. Smith, 9th Cavalry, with a
detachment of twenty men, struck the hostiles about fifteen miles
from McEwers, NM. The Indians were defeated after a severe fight,
in which Lieutenant Smith and four men were killed.
A party of men under George Daly joined Lieutenant Smith in the
fight, and Daly was killed.
NYTimes Archives
August 24, 1881, Wednesday
DENVER, Aug. 23.–A special from Santa Fe, New-Mexico, gives the following account of the fight in Lake Valley a few days ago: “Lieut. Smith and his force of 20 men had been on the trail several days, and by forced marches overtook the Indians near McEver’s ranch in the Lake Valley district.
The whites lost George Daly and Lieutenant Smith and four men killed and 11 wounded
Lake Valley – Silver Mining Heydays
In the morning of August 19th, the posse had trailed the Apache into a canyon about ten miles west of Lake Valley, where they were ambushed by Nana and his men. Both Daly and Lieutenant Smith were immediately killed and a number of miners wounded. Sergeant Brent Woods then took command in what resulted in a six-hour battle, in which, at least four soldiers were killed. Finally, Nana and his band withdrew and the posse returned with their dead and wounded back to Lake Valley. Some of those wounded would also later die.

NEW MEXICO LEGENDS Lake Valley – Silver Mining Heydays
is hand at mining, Miller found little success and soon sold some of the claims to a group of investors.
Lieutenant George Washington Smith, commander of the local Buffalo Soldiers of the 9th Cavalry, tried to talk Daly and the others out of pursuing the Indians, but when they refused, he and some 15-20 of his men reluctantly joined them.
In the morning of August 19th, the posse had trailed the Apache into a canyon about ten miles west of Lake Valley, where they were ambushed by Daly and Lieutenant Smith were immediately killed and a number of miners wounded. Sergeant Brent Woods then took command in what resulted in a six-hour battle, in which, at least four soldiers were killed.

On the Trail of Buffalo Soldiers
Brown, James B, 9th Cav., Gavilan Canyon 19 Aug 1881

30aug/1sept Cibicue – 11
Fighting at Cib Cr
Irish Deaths in the Frontier Army
Foran Thomas F. 03/10 1880 New York, NY Waterford Laborer 22.000 Grey Brown, light Ruddy 5′ 10” D 6 Cav. Private Killed in Action Indians enroute to Ft. Apache Arizona Territory 08/31 1881

Oct. 2 Cedar Springs – 3
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Oct2, Cedar Spr; 1Cv,G,6Cv,AF,det8Inf,Ind. Scouts
Col Willcox, killed: 3 enl. men & 3 wounded
Apache conflict in Graham County:
The Apaches were pursued by four companies of cavalry
commanded by the veteran Indian fighter Captain Reuben
F. Bernard. … In the ensuing battle on October 2, near
Cedar Springs, three soldiers, including a sergeant, were killed.
History of the Fort Grant to Camp Thomas Road during the 1880’s
The Apache Outbreak of 1881:
killed four soldiers who had been sent out from Ft. Grant to
repair the telegraph line
… General Willcox…. reporting that one soldier was killed and four
The McLaury Brother’s,Tombstone Story pt. II
October 3. “Two messengers from Lieutenant Overton’s command
arrived here about one hour ago, and reported that they had found
two soldiers and a citizen dead about twelve miles from here on the
road to Cedar.

Sixth Cavalry:
The withdrawal of troops from the Mexican border to participate in driving in these Indians, left the way open and the Chiricahuas broke from the reservation and fled south. They were rapidly pursued by two troops and overtaken near Cedar Springs, Arizona, and fought for more than five hours, with a loss of one sergeant killed and three privates wounded. The Indians fled from the strong position held by them during the night, and eventually reached Mexico.


April Stein’s Pass 4th Cav – 2
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Apr 23, Stein’s Pass; 4Cv,M&Ind. Scouts; Lt McDonald
Killed: 4 enlisted men
Sheridan’s Record of Engagements 1868-1882, 101:
Four of the scouts were killed
Encyclopedia of Indian Wars
343: 1 Private killed, 1 Sergeant mortally wounded
Martin and 5 enlisted men wounded
Four scouts also killed

23 april Horseshoe Can – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Apr 23 Horseshoe C; 4 Cv,CFGHM, Ind. Scouts; LtCol
Forsyth; killed: 1 enlisted man

28 april Hatchet Mnt – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Apr 28; Hatchet mnt; 6 Cv, GMBD, Indian Scouts;
Capt Tupper; Killed: 1 enlisted man
Apache conflict in Graham County:
Captain Tupper, with Troops G and M, and Indian
scouts, caught up with the band near the Mexican line,
and fought, April 28, about 150 Indians who had taken
refuge in the rocks, killing 17 Indians and 15 horses and
mules, and capturing 75 horses and mules, with a loss of
one trooper killed and two wounded

17 july Big Dry Wash – 2
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
July 17, Big Dry Wash, 3Cv, DEI; 6CvEIKB, Indian
Scouts; Maj Evans; killed: 1 enl. man; wounded: 2 off. & 7 enl. m.
Apache conflict in Graham County:
The army’s losses were reported at two killed ad several,
including an officer, wounded


8 june Skeleton Canyon 4Cv D Geronimo’s Surrender – 3
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
June 8; Guadaloupe Can., Mexico; 4 Cv;
Killed: 3 enlisted men
Geronimo’s surrender – Skeleton Canyon, 1886
By James W. Hurst:
In Skeleton Canyon, called Canon Bonita by the Mexicans, Chihuahua’s band surprised eight troopers of Troop D, Fourth Cavalry, killed three men, burned the wagons and supplies, and drove off forty horses and mules

June 10, 1885 Arizona Deputy Sheriff Daniels – 1
June 10, 1885 Arizona Deputy Sheriff Billy Daniels is killed
Two years after Arizona Deputy Sheriff William Daniels apprehended three of the five outlaws
responsible for the Bisbee Massacre, Apache Indians kill him.
The next year, Daniels ran for sheriff but lost. He found a new position as an inspector of
customs that required him to travel all around the vast and often isolated Arizona countryside,
where various bands of hostile Apache Indians were a serious danger. Early on the morning of
this day in 1885, Daniels and two companions were riding up a narrow canyon trail in the Mule
Mountains east of Bisbee. Daniels, who was in the lead, rode into an Apache ambush.
The first bullets killed his horse, and the animal collapsed, pinning Daniels to the ground.
Trapped, Daniels used his rifle to defend himself as best he could, but the Apache quickly
overwhelmed him and cut his throat.
His two companions escaped with their lives and returned the next day with a posse.
They found Daniel’s badly mutilated corpse but were unable to track the Apache Indians
who murdered him.
Who Died In The Line Of Duty
June 10, 1885— Cochise County Deputy Sheriff William A. Daniels, who also served as a
U.S. Customs Inspector, killed by Apaches.

June 21 Oputo, Mexico – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
June 21, detach.: D&Indian Scouts; killed: 1 enl. m.

Sept 22 – Teres Mountains, Mexico – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Sept 22, Teres Mnt, M; det.:GHK& Ind Scouts
Killed: 1 enlisted man

Oct 10 – Lang’s Ranch – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Oct 10; Lang’s Ranch; 4 Cv, F, courier; killed:
1 enl. man

Nov 7 – Florida Mountains – 1
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Nov 7; Florida Mnt; 6 Cv, A & Ind Sc; killed:
1 enl. man

November 26 – Galeyville Sheriff – 1
Who Died In The Line Of Duty
November 26, 1885— Cochise County Deputy Sheriff Casper Albert killed by Apaches at Galeyville.

Dec 19 – Little&Big Dry Cr – 5
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
Dec 19, Little Dry Cr; 8Cv,C, Lt Fountain
Killed: 1 officer & 4 enl. men
In this fight 1st Lieut. J. C. Maddox, Assistant Surgeon U. S. A., Wagoner Frank Hutton, Privates George Gibson and Harry McMillan were instantly killed; Blacksmith Daniel Collins was mortally wounded, dying two hours later, and Corporal Wallace McFarland was wounded. Three horses were killed and several wounded.


May 3 – Calabasas – Cpt. Lebo 10th Cav. – 1/2
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
May 3 Penito Mnt; 10 Cv,K; Capt Lebo; killed: 1 enl. man
The Private Journal of George Whitwell Parsons:
Wednesday, May 5, 1886: Weather: Fine. Reports by
Signal Officer of engagement with Apaches near Calabasas
by part of 10th Cavalry; “coon” and two soldiers killed.
Geronimo, 148:
Killed: 1
Encyclopedia of Indian Wars 349: 1

May 15 – Pinto Mountains – 2
Chronological List of Actions, &c., with Indians
from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1891:
May 15, Pinto Mnt; 4 Cv, DE; Capt. Hatfield; killed: 2 enl. men


0 may San Carlos – 1
Chronological List of actions:
May 10 San Carlos Lt Stewart 10 Cav; killed 1 officer


June 21, 1892 Lot Smith, Mormon soldier – (1)
Lot Smith, one of the leading soldiers in the Mormon’s military confrontation
with the United States Army, is killed by Navaho Indians in Utah.
During the 1850s, the ambiguous status of Utah led to an armed conflict between
the United States Army and the Utah militia in which Smith played a central role.
Determined to assert federal control over Utah, in 1857 President James Buchanan
ordered U.S. soldiers to Utah to ensure Mormon loyalty and acquiescence to federal
authority. That July, a force of soldiers that became known as the Utah Expedition
left Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and headed for Utah.
Young feared that the soldiers were not a legitimate federal army but rather an
armed mob of anti-Mormon fanatics. He directed his Mormon militia to impede
the progress of the U.S. Army. Fortunately, the Mormon militia found that the
ill-prepared forces under the leadership of Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston were
easily stymied without having to resort to actual combat.
Now serving as a major in the Utah militia, Smith was able to capture and burn
two of Sidney’s provision trains of 52 freight wagons and drive off most of
the oxen and beef. Brutal weather combined with the Mormon’s effective
destruction of his supply lines forced Johnston to retreat to Fort Bridger, Wyoming.
Smith’s successful efforts, and those of other leaders of the Mormon militia, may
have kept the conflict from turning into a full-scale war.
By the following spring when Johnston’s army again headed toward Salt Lake City,
the passion for war on both sides had cooled.
Brigham Young, who claimed he had always been loyal to the United States,
accepted a new gentile governor for Utah Territory.
If the Mormons had indeed once dreamed of creating an independent theocratic
community in Utah, they now abandoned the idea and largely accepted federal authority.
For his part, Smith went on to play an important role in expanding Mormon settlement
in the West, leading a successful effort to colonize northern Arizona. He became a forceful,
and some said autocratic, leader of the Mormon settlement at Tuba City, where he
established his Circle S Ranch and may have taken as many as eight wives.
In the 1890s, the Arizona Mormons came into increasing conflict with Navaho Indians
who grazed their sheep on land that the Mormons claimed as their own.
Smith apparently angered the Navaho by shooting several of their sheep he
found grazing on land he claimed. On this day in 1892, a small band of Navaho retaliated by ambushing Smith and shooting him to death. He was 62 years old.

Total – 447

Chronological List of Actions with Indians during the War of 1812


Nov. 7 – Tippecanoe Harrison – 61 – 62


July 25 – Aux Canard Major Denny Ohio voluteers – 5-6

Tec 288-89
The War of 1812 in the Northwest

1812, July 24. Major James Denny is sent with three companies of militia (117 men), against the Indians on the Aux Canards River. He marches on the night of the 24th and forms an ambush at Petit Cote the next morning. A French-Canadian spy is captured. On the 25th they march in view of the enemy. A few Indians come up about noon, are fired on, and flee. Later a battle ensues and the Americans retreat to Turkey Creek Bridge. They have six killed and two wounded. The British supposedly have double this number of casualties.

Nor, among the very many daring exploits performed at the Canard river, during the brief period of General
Hull s occupation of. the Western District of Canada, must omission be made of the gallant conduct of 22 Warriors of the Minoumini tribe of Indians, who defeated and drove in a detachment of 200 Americans, under the command of Major Denny, who had advanced as far as the mutilated bridge, with a view of forcing a passage. The river, as it is called, is not more than three or four rods in width.

Aug 5 – nr Brownstown Van Horne – 20

DONHAM Family History
DIED: 4 Aug 1812
Killed at Battle of Brownstown while serving as a member
of the Williamsburg Company of Riflemen, which was part
of the Third Regiment of the Ohio Militia.
Thomas ELDER, 1812 Pension Declaration
…..he fought in the battle of Brownstown Mich. under command of Major
Vanhorn, here Captains Ulry, Gilercase, Bosler and McCulloch were lost or
McCulloch was acting in the capacity of a spy and was killed by the Indians
before the commencement of the regular engagement.
Citizen soldiers in the war of 1812 p81: 40 British and 70 Indians
Of those reported missing 70 later showed up at the Fort
Of the 17 killed … 5 officers

1812: war with America p65
but on 5 August Tecumseh ambushed a force of 150 men under Major Thomas van Horne sent to Brownstown to support Brush killing and then scalping 17, and capturing the mail in the opposite direction

William McCulloch’s Details
Birthdate: 1762
Death: Died August 12, 1812 in Brownstown

War of 1812
(From Clermont County.)
The rostor of the Williamsburgh Company of Riflemen served from April 24, Until May 23, 1812.

The company formed a part of the Third Regiment of Ohio militia, but in the march to Detroit was
attached to Col. Cass’ regiment of the First Brigade of the First Division.
It was engaged at the Battle of Brownstown , where four of its men were killed Aug.4, 1812,
and Daniel McCullom later died of wounds received in the same engagement.

Capt. Jacob Boerstler , killed at Brownstown
Daniel McCullom
Abner Arthur (killed)
Watson Stephens (killed)
William Wardlow (killed)

Aug – south of Brownstown French volunteers escorting mail – 18
Tecumseh by Sugden p291, 445


River Raisin August the 11th 1812

I improve the first opportunity by the Bearer Major Taylor to inform you, that I arrived at the
Rapids of Miami on the morning of the 9th inst, but have been delayed on the road for want
of grain for the horses.
I came here yesterday accompanied by twenty one Rangers from Manary’s Block House
who volunteered as Escort for the purpose mentioned in your letter addressed to Capt Manary.

I regret that I cannot send you an account detail from Head Quarters, but this is now impossible — the communication to the Army is entirely obstructed by the enemy, — on wednesday last the mail was escorted by between 200 and 300 men, a severe engagement insued on the way — our troops retreated, formed and fought valiantly for a time until overpowered by the enemy, which consisted of both Indians and British — twenty five of the Escort went from this place and but seven of them have returned, and some of those are wounded, from the best information we can learn, about one half of the Escort were killed & missing & it seems a dreadful havoc was the result and the road was strewed with the mangled bodies of the dead.

A prisoner escaped from Malden and came in here yesterday, who states on oath, that he saw the Mail opened in the British Garrison, which was supposed to have been taken in the battle of Wednesday last, and that there was much sport in Malden, in consequence of arresting the Public papers, which were examined by enemy.

I have also to state, that a severe engagement took place day be- fore yesterday , three or four miles tie other side of Brownstovrm, very near the place of the battle ground of Wednesday, and it is con- firmed by two Frenchmen who fled from a boat (being then prisoners) that our troops were victorious, and the enemy experienced a total defeat.

Such are the reports here and such the general opinion relative to the battles of Wednesday & Sunda Dut, Sir, we are all in doubt and anxiety about the detail of the two last engagements, — as many as five different Expresses have been sent from this place to Genl Hull to get tidings from the Army, and not one has been heard of or returned The Expresses sent were confidential men & itunners well acquainted with the woods. An Express is here now writing from Buffalo [waiting?] in the State of N York, who says, the British have started three Vessels to reinforce Malden, and one of the Frenchmen from Malden states, that the three Vessels arrived at Malden with a reinforcement; a rejoicing ensued at the Fort, and the Guns were heard at this place. Capt Brush Company arrived here on the 9th all in good health and good spirits — there are now about 160 troops here (exclusive of the Militia, which cannot be relied on) — great suspicion is attached to the Frenchmen living in and about this place. The people are flocking into the Stockade for pro- tection, and the town and country around are alarmed. –

I cannot inform you Sir, what course will be pursued here – if there is even a probable chance[?] of seeing Detroit without incurring the imputation of rashness, I shall proceed to Head Quarters, if not I shall wait with the rest of the troops till we [illeg.] hear from Genl Hull.


River Raisen 10th Augt. 1812

His Excy. Governor Mages

Dr Sir

I think it a duty encumbent on me as a Citizen of the U.S. and as an officer of the Militia, to inform your Excy, our situation, it is ten days since our Communication has boon Cut off by the British & In- dians, on the road to Detroit in all directions the mail has been taken by said B & I on the 5th Int. we expect to be attacked every night, we have sent four espresses to Detroit, within three eight days, and none of them has returned, and we are doubtful they are all taken.

I have the honour to be your Excys. most obed-b. & H.S.

John Anderson
Col. 2d. Regt. of M.M.

It was on this occasion, that one of these rigid customs peculiar to the Indians was observed. Previous to our
arrival at Brownstown a detachment of American troops, consisting of 200 Riflemen of the Ohio Volunteers, under the command of Major Van Home, had been sent from Detroit to escort the Mail, and to open a communication with Captain Brush who, on his way with a supply of provisions for the army of General Hull, had been compelled to halt at the River Raisin, thirty-six miles below Detroit, his route having been intercepted by the Indians.
The spies or scouts of these latter, having given intimation to Tecumseh, who was then at Brownstown at the Mead of a small force, of the approach of Major Van Home, he took with him a party of 24 warriors, and with these formed an ambuscade about three miles from the village, and lining the thick woods on either side of the road which passed through them, as far as his little band would permit, there awaited the advance of the enemy.
Major Van Home, having neglected to throw out skirmishers or an advanced guard of any kind, came suddenly, with the main body of his riflemen chiefly mounted, within reach of the Indians, who opened upon them a most destructive fire, killing many men I and horses, and compelling the remainder to wheel about and seek their safety in flight. The Indians rose from their ambush and, uttering fierce yells, pursued them for a considerable distance, but without much subsequent loss to the enemy, the fleetness of whose horses enabled them soon to dis tance their pursuers.

The only loss sustained by Tecumseh was one man killed, and that by almost the last shot fired, in their
confusion, by the .enemy. This individual was a young Chief named Logan, who often acted as an interpreter, and who, from partially understanding the English language, and being in frequent communication with them, was nearly as great a favourite with the Officers and men of the Right Division, as he was with his own people.
At the close of the action, Logan s dead body was brought in, and placed in a long, low, log building which
the Indians chiefly used as a council room.
Here the recently engaged warriors now assembled, taking their seats in a circle, with an air of great solemnity, and in profound silence.
Up to that moment one prisoner only of the American detachment had fallen into their hands.

This poor fellow had been wounded, although not in such a way as to disable him from walking, and he was made to take his seat in the circle.
Added to the 24 Warriors selected by Tecuniseh, was the eldest son of Colonel Elliott, the Superintendent of Indian affairs, a very fine young man who was afterwards killed, (and scalped I believe) and who, dressed as an Indian throughout the day, now took his station as one of the war-party, among his late companions in arms. It chanced that the prisoner was placed next to him.
After having been seated some little time in this manner, Mr. Elliott, observing the
blood to flow from some part of his neighbor s body,
involuntarily exclaimed Good God, you, are wounded.
The sound of an English voice operated like magic upon
the unhappy man, and his look of despair was in an
instant changed for one of hope. ” Oh Sir,” he eagerly
exclaimed, “if you have the power to save me do so.”
Mr. Elliott, who related the whole of the above circum
stances to us later, stated that he had never experienced
.such moments of mental agony as he felt during this
short appeal. Bitterly repenting the indiscretion which
had been the means of exciting an expectation, which he
well knew he had not the slightest power to realize, he
was compelled to reply somewhat harshly that he had no
more voice there than the prisoner himself, which indeed
was the fact. The American said no more ; he bent his
head upon his chest, and remained silent. Soon after
wards a bowl with food was placed before him, evidently
with a view (as the result proved) of diverting his atten
tion. Of this he slightly partook or seemed to partake.
While occupied in this manner, a young warrior, obeying a signal from one of the elders, rose from his seat, and coming round and behind the prisoner, struck him one blow with his tomahawk on the uncovered head, and he ceased to live. Not a yell, not a sound beside that of the crashing tomahawk was heard, not a muscle of an Indian face was moved. The young warrior, replacing his weapon, walked deliberately back, and resumed his seat in the circle. The whole party remained a few r minutes longer seated, and then rose to their feet, and silently withdrew leaving to those who had not been of the warparty, to dispose of the body of the victim.
Tecumseh was not present at this scene.

* The American loss at Brownstown, according to Hull s despatch of Aug. 7th, 1812, was 7 officers and 10 privates killed ; the numer of wounded, unknown. Major Van Home, in his evidence at Hull s trial, put his loss at 18 killed, 12 wounded and 70 missing, which may be considered as correct. Colonel Procter, in his let
ter to Brock on Aug. llth, 1812, puts the American loss at ” about 50 killed.” The British loss was not more than stated, as Major Van Home made scarcely any resistance.

On the very morning after this occurrence, as the Officers sat grouped together on the grass, literally imbedded in letters, the contents of the mail from Detroit, which had been captured by the Indians, and which were now being opened for the purpose of ascertaining the intended movements of the enemy, the w r ild and peculiar yell of several Warriors announced that another captive was being brought in.

Even at the moment when the mind of the prisoner was lulled into confidence, and with out any previous admonition, the heartless woman drew a tomahawk from beneath her mantle, and buried its point in the skull of her victim. Stunned but not felled by the wound, the unhappy man his whole countenance expressing horror and despair grasped at the first soldier near him for support ; but the blow was repeated so

suddenly, and with such violence, that he soon fell panting and convulsive to the earth.
Fortunately he was not suffered to linger in his agony. The Indians around instantly despatched and scalped him, stripping the body of its clothes, and committing violations on his person in which the cruel aunt of Logan bore a principal share.

Aug 8-9 Maguaga Miller – 18

Michigan’s early military forces: a roster and history of troops activated
Churchill, Philemon Pvt Dequindres Company Aug 9 nr Brownsville
Varmette, Antoiune Pvt Dequindre’s Company Aug 9
White, Bath Sibley’s Company Aug 9

T291 297

1812: war with America p65
the Americans lost 18 dead and 64 wounded

Aug 15 – near Fort Malden prisoners T292 – 2

Aug 15 – Ft Dearborn – 38

Sept. – near Vallonia? Indiana Ranger – 1

Vallonia, Indiana
One of the new companies of Indiana Rangers was newly organized, and set out to investigate claims of a Native American war party near Brownstown, Indiana. Finding no war party, the company returned to Fort Vallonia, but one ranger, Robert Sturgeon, rode ahead. He was ambushed by Native Americans and killed.
John Sturgeon Family
Robert Sturgeon (Rev. Soldier) b. 1755 PA d. Sept 1812 killed by Indians
Re: James B Sturgeon 1865 – Kentucky
ROBERT3 STURGEON, b. Abt. 1755, Cumberland Co., PA; d. September 1812, Killed by Indians in Indiana;

Sept 3 – retreat fr Pigeon R – 1
1812 Pigeon Roost Massacre
The militiamen, led by Major John McCoy, followed the attackers as far as the Muscatatuck
River, where the trail was lost.
A force of Indiana Rangers from Washington County, Indiana under Captain Henry Dawalt
intercepted the Pigeon Roost raiders at Sand Creek (in modern Bartholomew County, Indiana).
One of the rangers, John Zink, was shot and later died, but the war party was able to escape
with only a few casualties.

Tec 316

Sept – near Mansfield Ohio – party of whites – 4
America and the War of 1812 p132
Near Mansfield, Indians killed four out of eight whites they encountered

Sept 4/6 – Ft Harrison Taylor – 5

Fort Harrison on the Banks of the Wabash 1812-1912
The Siege of Fort Harrison

September 3rd, occurred the Pigeon Roost Massacre in which twenty-four persons were killed and the same day two men were killed near Fort Harrison.
In the afternoon of September 4th a body of Indians approached the Fort under a flag of truce, asking for a conference regarding provisions. Captain Taylor, suspecting treacheiy, would not treat with
them, but made careful preparations to resist an attack by the Indians.
Beside the garrison there were several citizens in the Fort, as Joseph Dickson, Peter Mallory and others, and there were several women and children in the Fort for protection. About midnight the attack was made and immediatel}^ came the cry of “Fire.”
The southwest block-house containing the stores of the contractor was on fire. The citizens and their
Avives under Dr. Wm. Clark battled with the fire, and the soldiers battled with the Indians.
Captain Taylor ordered out buckets and soon there were buckets of water passing from the well to the fire.
By the time the door was broken out the fire bad reached a quantity of whiskey and there was no hope of saving the bk)ek-house. The roof next the barracks was thrown off and the barracks kept so w^et that the fire did not spread to them. The burning of the block-house would make an opening in the
walls of the Fort about twenty feet wide.
When the fire was under control a number of men were put to work building a barricade across this
opening, and before the fire had cooled down so that persons could pass through, a bamcade had been completed and the walls of the Fort were again suitable for defense.
During the fire the w^omen drew the water from the well and the men passed it up to the roof. In a short time the water got so low in the well that they could not dip the bucket full.
Then Julia Lambert said, “Let me down into the well and I will fill the buckets.” In doing this Julia dipped up so much sand that after a while the well was made deeper so that the buckets dipped full again.
This was talked of as a miracle. It is said that Julia never recovered from the fatigue and exposure in the well. After the fire was under control, the women loaded the guns for the men and the girls moulded bullets.
Soon after the attack, two frightened men jumped over the palisade, thinking it safer outside than inside a burning Fort.
One was killed in a few minutes. After a while the other, severely wounded, crawled back to the shelter of the walls of the Fort.
The contest was kept up until morning.
As it began to get light so that the fire from the Fort became more effective, the Indians retired, giving up the fight.
They drove away the cattle, shot the horses they could not catch, and killed a number of hogs.
The losses were two killed and two wounded in the Fort, one killed and one wounded outside the Fort. Two killed in the field September 3rd and two were killed on the 4th as they were coming into the shelter of the Fort.
Total loss seven killed and three wounded.
Nothing is known of the number of Indians engaged in the attack and nothing is known about their losses, but they were thought to have been small.
When news of the attack on Fort Harrison reached Vincennes, about 1,200 men under Colonel William Russell, marched to the relief of the Fort. The force consisted of Colonel Wilcox’s Regiment of Kentucky Volunteers, three companies of rangers under Colonel Jordan, and two regiments of Indiana militia under Colonel Evans. When these troops without opposition reached the Fort September 16th, the Indians had retired. The Kentucky Volunteers remained at the Fort
for some time. The others returned to Vincennes.

Sept. 5/12 – Wayne – 4

For several days the Indians, in large numbers, had been seen hovering in the woods around Fort Wayne, and on the night of the 5th of September they commenced a series of attacks by firing upon the sentinels, without effect. Up to that time, the Miamis in the neighborhood, who had resolved to join the British, had made great professions of friendship, hoping, no doubt, to gain possession of the fort by a surprise. This hypocrisy availed them nothing, so they cast off all disguise and opened hostilities. On the morning of the 6th they were invisible, and some of the soldiers ventured out of the fort. They had not proceeded seventy yards when bullets from a concealed foe killed two of their number. Their companions hastened back, carrying the bodies of their comrades with them.
On the night of the 6th the whole body of Indians, supposed to have been six hundred strong, attacked the fort, They attempted to scale the palisades, but so vigilant and skillful were the garrison that the savages were not permitted to do the least damage. Perceiving such assaults to be useless, they resolved to employ strategy in the morning. Two logs were formed into the shape of cannon, and placed in battery before the fort. A half-breed, with a flag, approached and informed the commandant that the British, then on their march, had sent them two battery cannon, and that if a surrender was not immediately made, the fort would be battered down. He also threatened a general massacre of the garrison within three days, as a re-enforcement of seven hundred Indian warriors were expected the next day. The troops were not frightened by the “Quaker guns.” They were aware that friends were on the way to relieve them, 37 and resolved to hold out while their provisions lasted. For nearly three days after the menace there was quiet. Then the savages renewed the attack [September 9, 1812.], and kept up a fire at intervals for twelve hours. On the following day they raised a tremendous war-whoop, to frighten the garrison, and again commenced an assault, with as little success as on previous occasions. The patient little garrison remained unharmed; and on the 12th, the besiegers fled precipitately, having heard of the approach of a large re-enforcement for the fort. That evening the deliverers arrived, and Fort Wayne was saved.

Garrison Book Roster
Sedore, Nehemiah Private Killed 9th September 1812 during the Siege by Indians
Johnson, Stephen Killed 5th September 1812 during the Siege
Crum, Tunis Corporal Present Taken prisoner and killed during the Siege 29th September 1812

Tec 315

War of 1812 Indian Hostilities

The Centinel (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania), October 28, 1812
Dayton, October 7.
The Indians are again infesting Fort Wayne.
They have killed three soldiers who were out hunting beeves.
After having relived Fort Wayne, Gen. Harrison returned to St. Mary’s to make the necessary arrangement for the Campaign into Canada. Gen. Winchester, with that part of the army which had been placed under his command, proceeded to Defiance, a decayed fort situated at the confluence of the Auglaize and the Miami of the lakes, for the purpose of building a Fort at that place.
On Wednesday last, General Harrison was informed by express from Gen. Winchester, that a large body of Indians, accompanied with some British, with several pieces of artillery, were within a few miles of Defiance, and that he apprehended an attack.
Five of our men who had been out to collect plumbs were found killed and scalped.
Capt. Garard’s troop and another company had met a scouting party of Indians and roused them; one of our militia was killed and another wounded.

Sept – Fort Madison – 1
Fort Madison, Ft. Tours
In September, 1812, hostile bands of Sauk and Fox besieged Fort Madison,
killed one soldier caught outside the stockade, slaughtered the garrison cattle,
and burned several nearby cabins.

In September, 1812, two hundred or more Winnebagoes, Sauks, and Foxes surrounded the fort. One soldier, John Cox, was caught outside the stockade, and killed. The Indians burned some of the outlying buildings, and killed live stock. They then began to shoot burning arrows onto the roofs of the barracks. The soldiers were forced to make squirt guns out of their musket barrels to put out the fires. Fearing that the Indians would set fire to the trading post and thus burn the fort, Lieutenant Hamilton had the soldiers slip outside and burn the trading post one night when the wind was calm.

Once when several Indians crept into an old stable and began to fire out of it, Ensign Vasquez made “their yellow jackets fly” with a shot or two from the cannon. After five days the Indians gave up the attack and crossed the river. Only one soldier had been killed and one wounded, but several Indians had been seen to fall.

15 sept Copus Massacre – 3/6
Ashland County Surname Register and Query Index
Seeking information on Rev. James COPUS who settled in
Mifflin Township in the early 1800s. He was killed by
Indians on 15 Sept 1812 along with soldiers George
information would be greatly appreciated.

Encyclopedia 1812, p128
Five of the soldiers were killed and scalped
1812: war with America p69
6 soldiers killed
America and the War of 1812 p133
6 soldiers

September 13 betw. Ft Knox & Ft Hamilton Fairbanks – 11

Battle of Fort Harrison
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Attacks at the Narrows
Following the relief army to Fort Harrison was a party of thirteen soldiers under Lieutenant Fairbanks of the Seventh Infantry escorting a supply wagon loaded with flour and meat.
On 13 September 1812, the supply wagon was ambushed by a Potawatomi war party at a part of the trail known as The Narrows, an area near modern Fairbanks, Indiana which has many ravines that serve as tributaries to Prairie Creek.[12] When the ambush was launched, the draft horses panicked and ran away with the wagon. Only two men- the wagoneer, John Black, and Private Edward Perdue- managed to escape back to Fort Knox alive, although Perdue was discharged due to the severe wounds he received.[13] Luckily for the two survivors, the Potawatomi gave chase to the runaway supply wagon.
Eleven soldiers and all the provisions were lost to the United States,

Indiana (Sullivan County), Fairbanks — 77.1989.4 — Fairbanks’ Massacre — Sergeant Nathan Fairbanks
A War of 1812 military action occurred in September 1812 three miles west/southwest of here. While escorting supplies from Fort Knox near Vincennes to Fort Harrison at Terre Haute, Sergeant Nathan Fairbanks and approximately a dozen soldiers were ambushed — and most killed — by Indians.

September 15 -nr Ft Harrison – Russel – 7

Tecemseh page 316

Battle of Fort Harrison
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A second column of two supply wagons and fifteen soldiers under Lieutenant Richardson
set out from Vincennes two days after the first wagon, following the same trail, and unaware
of the fate of the first.[15]
When the Potawatomi learned that a second supply wagon was approaching, they setup
the same ambush.
On 15 September, after the initial attack, Richardson realized he was out manned, and
ordered a retreat.
The wagons were left behind to be plundered, which may have saved the lives of the
retreating soldiers.
Even so, seven men had been killed, and another had been badly wounded.

Sept/Oct – near Fort Defiance Liggett – 5/6
Historical Collections of Ohio,The War of 1812
in Ohio –Part 3:
Sept.25th — Ensign Liggett with a detachment is sent ahead of the
army to Ft Defiance. He has four men with him.
A Frenchman with eight Indians creeps up on them and demands
them to surrender. They do, but work out a plan to kill the Indians,
However, the Indians killed them first.
Capt Ballard finds them the next day, but retreats wen he finds a
party of 200 Indians nearby.

The Tale of Ensign Liggett
Ensign Liggett was leading an advance party of spies for General Winchester
along the north side of the Maumee River, on about September 25, 1812.
They were on the lookout for the Indians and the British as they approached
the site of the old Fort Defiance, built by General Anthony Wayne in 1794.
The Indians killed all six of the party.
Names of persons killed:
Ensign Liggett, of the 17th Regt. Regulars. Alexander M’Coy, of
Georgetown, Scott’s Regiment.
Wyatt Step, Guy Hinton, Wm. Bevis, Wm. Mitchell, all of Woodford –
Volunteers in Capt. Virgil M’Cracken’s Company.

America and the War of 1812 p135
Near the end of September, Major Muir embarked a small detachment, a howitzer and two field pieces
on boats and crossed the lake to the Miami village, some fifteen miles beyond the entrance of the Miami.
The Indians joined him on their landwards march.
It required hard labor to transport the guns.
About nine in the dark of evening Muir heard the cry of his scouts. They had killed and scalped several
Americans who were around the campfire cooking food.
The Indians pretended to be friends and lulled the suspicions of the soldiers, whose officers said they
were scout for an army of 2500 men marching towards the Miami village.
They were escorted toward the British encampment and caught by surprise and killed.
Siege of Fort Wayne
General Winchester, meanwhile, departed Fort Wayne on 22 September to recapture Fort Detroit when he received news that a hostile force was marching towards Fort Wayne. This force, under Major Adam Muir, consisted of British Regulars, Canadian militia, and thousands of Native Americans.[22] Near Defiance, Ohio, two scouting parties met each other, and the U.S. scouting party was captured. The five men under Ensign Liggett were marched part way back to the British camp, then killed

History of the Late War, Between the United States and Great Britain
On the 24th, they discovered an Indian trail for the first time, and pursued it some
distance; but from the nature of the coiintry, it was impossible to overtake the enemy.
Ensign Leggett, having obtained permission to penetrate to Fort Defiance, still at the
distance of twenty-four miles, set out accompanied by four volunteers.
These gallant young men, not being sufficiently experienced in such enterprises,
were killed the same evening, and found the next day by the spies, scalped and
tomahawked in the most barbarous manner.

29 sept – Cedar Point Ohio militia – 6/8
First Battle SiteWar of 1812:
The first war of 1812 on Ohio soil was fought here when about 60 exhausted
citizen soldiers were ambushed by about 130 Indians on September 29.
Twenty men held the Indians at bay in a cabin while the main body escaped by
boat to Cedar Point. Two days later the defenders were rescues.
Forty Indians including several chiefs and 8 Americans were killed in the skirmish
The Battle of Marblehead Peninsula Historical Collections of Ohio
The Peninsula War
……Ramsdell, Blackman and Bills were interred between two logs and covered
with leaves and brush.
……..but beneath the puncheon floor were buried Pvts. Mingus, Simmons,
and Mason, killed in the last brush near the building.
DeVan Family
On the 28th of September 1813 came word that Indians were plundering the abandoned farms on the “peninsula,” and sixty-four men, under Captain Joshua T. Cotton, volunteered to night-fall to meet them. Young Giddings, on coming off guard, found them marching at drum-beat up and down for recruits, and took his place with them. They made the advance by water that night, fought two sharp battles the next day, lost twelve men and their boats. The Indians were more numerous and might have cut them off, but were too roughly handled. Their hardships were very great on the return. Their old Indian friend Omic, to whom they had always been kind, must had led the enemy, as his scalping-knife was found in the body of one of their slain, advertising his presence and prowess.

Colonel Hayes’ regiment was not needed for long service, and after five months the young soldier returned home. It is curious that, although several men were killed in this affair on the Peninsula, no account of it is to be found in any history of the war
Menges/Mingus Family
From a picture by Sharon Koch, the following plaque was found on Joshua Giddings Plot, Bay Shore Road, Marblehead with the “names of seven men killed by Indians Sept. 27, 1812…listed on the small slab stone…
James S. Bells, Alexander Mason, Valentine Ramsdell, Simeon Blackman, Daniel Mingus, Abraham Simons, Aquilla Puntney.”
Civil War Days & Those Surnames
Alexand Mason was born on Oct. 21, 1778, in Rhode Island. He married Cornelia (Marvin) Mason between 1795 and 1801, they had six children however no names could be found, he was a volunteer in the militia under the command of Brigadier-General Perkins of the Northern frontier.
Alexander Mason was killed by a party of Indians on September 29, 1812.

Oct. 13 – Rapids – Tupper 4
History of the Late War
General Tupper, having returned to Urbanna with his mounted men, was dispatched with the division of the center, which consisted of a brigade of Ohio volunteers and militia, and a regiment of regulars, to Fort M’Arthur, while the right wing, consisting of a Pennsylvania and a Virginia brigade, was ordered to Sandusky.
General Tupper, on his arrival at Fort M’Arthur, organized another expedition, for the purpose of proceeding to the Rapids.

This force consisted of about six hundred men; and being provided with five days’ provisions, marched on the 10th, and on the 13th (October) approached within thirteen miles of the Rapids, which they found, by their scouts, to be still in the possession of the British and Indians.
A number of boats and small vessels were seen lying below.
On receiving this information, they advanced within a few miles of the Rapids, and then halted until sunset, with a view of crossing the river, and making an attack the next morning by daybreak.
The rapidity of the current was such, that their attempts were ineffectual ; many of the men, who endeavoured to cross, were swept down the stream, and it was thought advisable to order those, who had actually passed; to return. It was now resolved to resort to stratagem, and if possible, to decoy the enemy over.
For this purpose, early in the morning, they showed the heads of their columns, by advancing some distance out of the woods, in an open space opposite the enemy’s camp. A great confusion appeared to ensue; those in the vessels slipped their cables, and descended the river, while the Indian women were seen scampering off on the road to Detroit.

A fire was then opened upon the Americans, with musketry and a four pounder.
Tupper’s stratagem did not perfectly succeed; but few Indians at first seemed disposed to cross, and then acted with great caution.
A number, however, were observed in a little while crossing higher up the river; being now apprehensive that his camp might be attacked, the general thought proper to return. He had not proceeded far, when some of the men unfortunately, contrary to orders, fired on a drove of hogs, and pursued them some distance, and others, equally disobedient, entered a field to pull corn.
At this moment, a body of mounted Indians rushed forward, killed four men, and attacked the rear of the right flank.
The column, being thrown back, commenced a brisk fire, and caused the Indians to give ground.
The Indians rallied, and passing along the van-guard, made a charge upon the rear of the left column : this column was also thrown briskly back ; all attempts to break it were unsuccessful, and in twenty minutes, the Indians again retired.
Conceiving this only preliminary to an attack of foot, general Tupper ordered the right column to move up in marching order, to prevent the attack from being made on the right flank.
Information was now received, that the Indians were crossing in considerable numbers ; on this, the general ordered the left column to take up the marching order, and proceed to the head of the right column, where a number of Indians had already crossed on horseback, while others were still in the river, and about two hundred on the opposite bank. These, a battalion was ordered to dislodge, which completely succeeded in the undertaking, many of them being shot from their horses in the river.
The different charges of the Indians were led by the famous chief Split-Log, who rode a fine white horse, from which he sometimes fired, at other times alighted, and fired from behind a tree. The horses appeared to have been much superior to those which the Indians generally ride, and they were well supplied with holsters and pistols. The Americans were compelled to return in haste, as their provisions were by this time entirely exhausted, and they had to march forty miles before they could obtain a fresh supply.

Early the next morning Tupper sent to Winchester for re-enforcements and food; and some spies
went down the river, showed themselves opposite the enemy’s camp, and tried to entice them across.
They failed, when Tupper moved down with his whole body, and displayed the heads of his columns
in the open space between the river and the woods.
This frightened the enemy.
“The squaws,” said a contemporary writer, 13 “ran to the woods; the British ran to their boats,
and escaped.
The Indians, more brave than their allies, paraded, and fired across the river, but without effect.” They used muskets and a four-pound cannon. Tupper then fell back, hoping the savages in a body would venture across the Maumee, but they did not. Some mounted Indians were seen to go up the stream, and at the same time some of Tupper’s men, contrary to orders, entered a field to pull corn, while others pursued a drove of hogs in the same direction.
The latter were suddenly assailed by a party of mounted savages who had crossed unperceived, and four of Tupper’s men were killed. The Indians, excited by the shedding of blood, fell upon the left flank of the white army, but were repulsed. Almost at the same moment, a large body of the savages, under the notable chief Split-Log, who rode a fine white horse, crossed the river above the advance of Tupper’s column. They were driven back by Bentley’s battalion with some loss, and the Ohio troops were not again annoyed by them.

Oct 12 – Pimartam Town Russell and Edwards ranchers Kickapoos

America and the War of 1812 p147
Official Letters of the Military and Naval Officers of the United States p89 4 wounded

13 oct Queenston Heights – Brock – 18

CasualtiesThe British official casualty return gave 14 killed, 77 wounded and 21 missing, with the loss of Norton’s Native Americans not included.[47] Historian Robert Malcomson has demonstrated this computation to be in error and shows that the British and Canadian losses were 16 killed, 83 wounded and 21 captured, with a further 5 killed, 2 wounded and 1 captured among the Native American contingent.[1] This gives a total loss of 21 killed, 85 wounded and 22 captured. Among the wounded Canadians was James Secord, husband of Laura Secord.

The number of Americans killed in the battle has been variously estimated at 60,[2] 90[48] and 100.[3]
82 severely wounded Americans were evacuated across the Niagara before the surrender, of whom 2 soon died.[4] 955 Americans were initially captured by the British, including 120 severely wounded officers and men.
This was more than the hospital at Niagara could accommodate, so some of them had to be cared for in the court house or in nearby churches.
These were only the men who were badly injured enough to require hospitalization: the numbers of the walking wounded, who were seen by the British surgeons and then kept with the other prisoners, have not been recorded.
Of the severely wounded prisoners, 30 soon died,[5] so by the time a full report on the prisoners was issued on 15 October, there were 19 officers and 417 enlisted men of the U.S. regulars and 54 officers and 435 other ranks of the New York Militia.[6]
The 80 surviving wounded in the American hospital and the 90 surviving wounded prisoners were presumably the basis for General Van Rensselaer’s statement, in a letter to Dearborn on 20 October, that “the aggregate” of his information would indicate that 170 Americans had been wounded in the battle.[2]
This gives total American casualties of 60-100 killed, 80 wounded, 90 wounded prisoners and 835 other prisoners.
6 officers (4 regular and 2 militia) were among the killed; 11 officers (6 regular and 5 militia) were among the wounded who escaped capture and 8 officers (4 regular and 4 militia) were among the wounded prisoners.
Those captured included Brigadier General William Wadsworth of the New York Militia, Lieutenant Colonel Scott and four other lieutenant-colonels.[49] A 6-pounder gun and the colours of a New York Militia regiment were also captured.

Nov 21-22 Wild Cat Creek Hopkins – 17

Citizen soldiers in the war of 1812 p 47-48: Peoria and Miami Indians; ill discipline

17/18 dec Mississinewa R Campbell – 12

Citizen soldiers in the war of 1812 p83:


Jan 18 – Frenchtown Lewis and Allen vs 50 Canadians and 200 Indians – 4/5. 13 – 10
Citizen soldiers in the war of 1812 p84: 650 Kentucky militiamen; 12 killed & 55 wounded
On the 14th of January, col. Lewis advanced towards the river Raisin.
On the 18th he found the enemy in force, and disposed to dispute the possession of the place.
He attacked them in the town ; on the first onset the savages raised their accustomed yell..
But the noise was drowned in the returning shouts of the assailants.
They advanced boldly to the charge and drove them in all directions.
On the first fire sixteen of the Indians fell — about 40 were killed.
Col. Lewis’ party lost 32 killed and 52 wounded.

Our loss in this action was eleven killed and fifty wounded.* Although the enemy had the advantage of
the village in the first attack, and of the woods in the second, their loss, by the best information, far exceeded ours.
A party was sent out to the battle-ground to bring in the dead, which were found scalped and stripped except one. In going over the battle-ground, great signs were seen (by the blood and w r here they had been dragged through the snow) of a considerable loss on the part of the enemy.
Two of the wounded died.

The Battles of the River Raisin
The Americans won at the cost of 13 killed and 54 wounded

Official letters of the military and naval officers of the United States
January 20th, 1813, on the River Raisin.
In obedience to your order, I proceeded on the march with the detachment under my command to Presquile on the 17th instant, where the reinforcement under the command of lieutenant colonel Allen arrived at 7 o’clock P.M. On the 18th, as I informed you it was my determination, we set out for the camp of the enemy at this village. From an early start, together with the advantage of a passage on the ice of the lake, and the rapid march we made, we were enabled to meet them by 3 o’clock in the evening.
When we were within three miles of the enemy, correct information was obtained that they were prepared” to receive us. Having arranged the troops in the following order—they were directed to prepare for action: the right wing composed of the companies commanded by captain M’Cracken, subalterns lieutenant Williamson and ensign M’Clary ; captain Bledsoe, subalterns ensign Morrison (acting as lieutenant,) and ensignChiner; captain Matson, subalterns ensign Nash (acting as lieutenant) and ensign Caldwell. The left wing composed of the companies commanded by captain Hamilton, subalterns lieutenant Moore and ensign Heron; captain Williams, subalterns lieutenant Higgins and ensign Havraw ; captain Kelly, subalterns lieutenant Jl’Guine and ensign Wash. The centre composed of the companies commanded by captain Hightowen (17th United States’regiment,) subalterns lieutenant Holden and ensign Butler; captain Collier, subalterns lieutenant Story and ensign Fleet; captain Sebree, subalterns lieutenant Rule and ensign Bowles. Lieutenant colonel Allen commanding the right wing, major Groves the left, and major Madison the centre. Captain Ballard (acting as major) was placed in the advance of the whole with two companies, one commanded by captain Hickman, subalterns lieutenant Chinn, the other by captain Claver, subalterns lieutenant Comstock, and also captain James with his spies. In this order we proceeded within a quarter of ji mile of the enemy, when they commenced a ftre on us with a howitzer, from which no injury was received. The line of battle was instantly formed and the whole detachment ordered to move on in the direction of the enemy without delay. Th« river at this time being between us and the enemy’s lines, we succeeded well in crossing it, though the ice in many places was extremely slippery. Having crossed at this instant the long roll was beat, the signal for a general charge, when I ordered major Groves and major Madison to possess themselves of the houses and picketing about which the enemy had chiefly collected, and where they had placed their cannon. This order was executed in a few minutes ; and both their battalions advanced amidst an incessant shower of bullets : neither the picketing nor the fencing over which they had to pass, retarded their progress to success— the enemy were dislodged in that quarter. Meantime colonel Allen had fallen in with them at considerable distance to the right, when after pursuing them to the woods (a distance of more than half a mile) they then made a stand with their howitzer and «mall arms covered by a chain of inclosed lots and a group of houses, having in their rear a thick brushy wood full of fallen timber. I directed brigade major Garrard (one of my aids) to instruct majors Groves and Madison to possess themselves of the wood on the left, and to move up towards the main body of the enemy as fast as practicable, to divert their attention from colonel Allen. At the moment the fire commenced, those battalions of the right wing advanced. The enemy were soon driven from the fences and houses, and our troops began to enter the wood after them. The fight now became close and extremely hot’on the right wing, the enemy concentrating the chief of both kinds to force the line. They were still however kept moving in retreat, although slowly, eur men being much exhausted. My orders to majors Groves and Madison were executed with despatch and success, which, joined with the exertions of colonel Allen’s line, completely routed the enemy. The distance they retreated before us was not less than two miles, and every foot of the way under a continual charge. The battle lasted from 3 o’clock till dark. The detachment was then drawn off in good order, and encamped at the place which the enemy had first occupied, being the best for a camp then near us. The gallant conduct of heutenant colonel Allen, during every charge of this warmly contested action, has raised for him no ordinary military merit. Majors Groves and Madison deserve high praise for their undeviating attention to orders and the energy and despatch with which they executed them. Captain Billiard led the van with great skill and bravery. I take this opportunity of tendering my most hearty thanks to brigade major Garrard, captain Smith and adjutant M’Caller, who acted as my aids-de-camp, for the great support they gave meduringthe whole of the action. The company officers acted with great bravery. It would be almost an endless task to particularize all who have distinguished themselves; for as all had an opportunity so to do, there was none but what accepted it. There was not a solitary instance of a retreat on our part. Both officers and soldiers supported the ” double character of Americans and Kentuckians.”

I have not been able to ascertain tl.e exact force of the enemy, but from the best information, there were between 80 and 100 British troops, and about 400 Indians. Major Reynolds was present, and it is understood, commanded the whole. The number of their killed and wounded is unknown, we having left the woods after dark, so that not only during the battle, but after night, they had an opportunity of carrying off all, except those who were left on the field where the action first commenced, say about fifteen. But from the blood, the trails of bodies dragged off, and the reports from the people who live near this place, the slaughter must have been great. One Indian and two of the Canadian militia were taken prisoners. So steady and composed were our men in this assault, that while the enemy were killed or drawn from the houses, not a woman or child was hurt..
Our loss in killed 12, and 55 wounded. One has since died.

I have the honour to be, &c.
WILLIAM LEWIS, Commdt. of the detachment.
Brigadier general Winchester.

Jan 22 – Frenchtown – Winchester – 200
Citizen soldiers in the war of 1812 p85 400 Americans lost

Febr – Rapids – 1
March 10 – Miami River – Lt Walker – 1
Troops under the command of Col. Fenton, Col. Rees Hill,Gens. Harrison and Crook, Col. Rush and Major Wersler, and those who rendezvonsed [!] at Camp Dupont, Erie, Lancaster, Marcus Hook and York and miscellaneous rolls”
The regiment remained at Upper Sandusky until January 24th, 1813, when its movements are noted in the dairy as follows:
Jan. 24, 1813. The Virginia Brigade, with Col. Ferree’s regi-
ment, set out for the Rapids of the Miami of the Lake En-
camped on the 25th at the Tiamaughta (Tymochtee). On
the 28th they proceed and cross the Tiamaughta on the ice,
leaving their baggage, as the ice will not carry horses. Jan.
30, the Brigade arrives at the river Portage, where they meet
Gen. Harrison, with Gen. Perkins’ Brigade, and proceed to
the rapids of the Miami of the Lake on 1st. of February. Gen.
Harrison with the above Brigades arrives at the foot of the
Rapids on the 2d. of February. From the Rapids to Upper
Sandusky 60 miles.

Under the head, “Occurrences,” the diary continues as follows:
“General Winchester defeats the Indians and their allies on the 18th January 1813. The Indians reinforce from Maiden
and attack Gen. Winchester on the 22d, find his camp in disorder, defeat and rout him in all quarters.
Out of 1,052 men only 27 return.
Gen. Harrison dispatches a fiag to Maiden on the 31st. January, under the direction of Dr. McGibben, with two pri-
vates one of whom, Mr. Connant, was found killed and scalped at the Rapids on the 3d. February.
Feb. 22. Col. Ferree very sick with Jaundice. Feb. 24.
We still continue at the Rapids.
A secret expedition of about 150 men set out at 10 o’clock. Commanded by Capt. Langam.
March 10. Lieut. Walker, from Beaver County, was found killed and scalped by the Indians, on the north side of the
Miami river about three miles below Fort Meigs.

Fort Meigs State Memorial
As the plaque reads: Erected in memory of the soldiers of Pennsylvania who gave up their lives and were buried at Fort Meigs. Pittsburgh Blues
Fifth Provisional Battalion Lieut. Robert Walker killed March 9, 1813

March 10

April 8 – Near Fort Meigs Harrison’s Company Michigan Volunteers – 2
Michigan’s early military forces: a roster and history of troops activated p119, 136
Robideau & Le Gros Amables

April 15
On the 15th of April a desperate encounter took place on the Miami, a few miles below fort Meigs, between ten Frenchmen, from the river Raisin, and about an equal number of Indians, both parties were in canoes, and they
maintained the fight till the greater part on both sides were either killed or wounded.

April 18 – Hargrove’s volunteers – 1

Lathom Newsletter
Ollie Lathom (the army spelled it Olly)
Ollie served in the War of 1812 an ‘is the only one that actually gave his life for his country. The following information comes from Galen Wilson.
Ollie joined the “4th Regiment Mounted (Evans) Indiana Militia” on August 11, 1812, and served one month and 10 days, being mustered out on September 20, 1812. it was a short‑term regiment: everybody got out really fast. Ollie joined up the next spring as Part of “Capt. Hargrove’s Company of Volunteer Mounted Rangers, Indiana Militia” on April 9, 1813.
His term of service was only~ 9 days. His service record says “Killed by Indians, April 18, 1813.”
Just where that happened is not stated.

May 1 – near Fort Meigs – Captain Combs – 1

General Leslie Combs
In April 1813, he was commissioned Captain of Scouts and was attached to the force under
General Green Clay, which had been ordered to the relief of Fort Morgo. Capt. COMBS
volunteered with the assistance of an Indian guide and four men to carry news of Clay’s
approach to Harrison. He succeeded in threading his perilous way through swamps of
hostile savages and had arrived in sight of the closely invested Fort, where he was attacked
by Indians, one of his men killed, another wounded, he and the rest escaped in a starving
condition back to Fort Defiance.


Clay was near the Maumee Valley when the courier reached him. He resolved to send Harrison word of the near approach of succor, for Clay was at the head of twelve hundred men. Captain Leslie Combs, a young man then nineteen years of age (yet living), volunteered to be the messenger. With four men of his company and a young Indian, he went down the Maumee in a canoe, and as they approached the Rapids, they heard the roar of artillery at Fort Meigs. It was the first of May, and Proctor had begun the siege. How shall I enter an invested fort was a question that perplexed the gallant captain. But he pushed on, and having passed the Rapids in safety, he rounded a point into view of the fort, over which waved the Stars and Stripes. Suddenly some Indians appeared in the woods on shore. Combs attempted to shoot by them in the canoe on the swift current, but a volley from their guns killed one of his men and badly wounded another. They turned the prow of the canoe toward the opposite shore and escaped.

May 5-9 – Ft Meigs Dudley 6/11 maal 218 : 119 plus 34 – 150

May 28 – Sackett’s Harbour Hendersom Bay – 30

June 23 – near Fort George – 4
The Iroquois in the war of 1812 p114
….. 25 Seven Nation Warriors assaulted some American troops at a tavern, near
Fort George, killing four and took seven prisoner.

June 23 – banks Niagara River attack barge – 2
The Iroquois in the war of 1812 p114
….aother patrol, scouting the banks of the Niagara River opened fire on a barge
full of Americans, killing two and taking six captive

On the 23rd, Captain Ducharme with twenty-five of his Indians passed quite
around the enemy’s position until he reached the bank of the river, within sight
of Fort George.
While there, they discovered a barge filled with American soldiers on its way
down from Lewiston, which they captured, killing four men and taking seven prisoners.

June 24 – Beaver Dams – 30
The Iroquois in the war of 1812 p115-120
Waiting for the Americans was a force of 465 men, composed of 180 Seven Nations and
203 Grand River people, along with 12 men from the Thames River, 70 Ojibways and Mississaugas
from the Rice Lake region, and a few militiamen
They formed an ambush in the forest beside the road the Americans were marching along.
The tribesmen hid on just one side of the road because the other, consisting of low-lying cleared
fields, did not offer much cover.
Captain Dominique Ducharme, the senior white officer on the scene, sent word to the closest
British positions to marshal the scattered companies of light troops and pickets to come to his aid.

With only forty-seven soldiers at his disposal, Fitzgibbon decided to meet the

They agreed that Fitzgibbon should negotiate the capitulation since Ducharme,
perhaps in response to the slackening fire from the warriors
After a short discussion, Fitzgibbon coaxed Colonel Boerstler into into capitulating to prevent the annihilation of his command, as he had convinced the American that native reinforcements from the northwest were arriving who would massacre the Americans because they, unlike the Iroquois, could not be controlled.49
The three-hour battle was over.

Major Roach found himself surrounded by warriors and slipped his sword under under his
coat in hopes of saving it, ‘but one Indian …
of his gun over my head and took my sword.
The American soldiers according to one of the volunteer riflemen

32 Not all the loot went to the Iroquois: a young lieutenant, : a young lieutenant, John Le Couteur,
whose light company of the 104th Foot was part of the second wave of arriving Britisch reinforcements …

The Americans also enjoyed looting
Immediately after the battle of Fort George, their camp followers stripped every article of clothing and equipment from the dead lying on the ground while American soldiers plundered the town of Niagara.

34 Major Roach claimed that the tribesmen killed the American wounded later in the night.
He seems to have exaggerated the gruesomeness

However, the warriors killed at least one person during the negotiations

The Americans lost ….they suffered 30 killed, 70 wounded and 500 more taken prisoner.

July 22 – nr Ft George Potawatomies – (22)

Niagara Falls Heritage
Action at Butler’s Farm
encamped near Fort George, was defeated by a band of Six Nations and Western Indians led by Chiefs John Norton and Blackbird and interpreters Michel Brisebois, Louis Langlade and Barnet Lyons. Lieutenant Samuel Eldridge and 22 soldiers of the 13th United States Infantry were killed and 12 taken prisoners”

A body of 150 savages, just arrived from the Western wilderness, under Captain M. Elliott, and led by the bloody Blackbird, of Chicago fame, 41 were employed as a covering party. Merritt was encamped, and while breakfasting at Ball’s a skirmish with an American picket-guard took place not far off. Lieutenant Eldridge (then adjutant), with 39 volunteers, went out to the relief of the guard, and a larger force, under Major Malcolm, prepared to follow. The impetuous Eldridge dashed forward into the thick wood, and fell into an ambush prepared for him by Blackbird and his followers. The foe was repulsed at first, but overwhelming numbers crushed Eldridge and his little party. 42 Only 5 escaped. The prisoners and wounded were butchered and scalped by the Western savages, whose conduct on the occasion was marked by the most atrocious barbarity.

July 11 – near Ball’s House – 2
On the 11th, a party of Algonquin and Nippissing Indians, led by the interpreter Langlade, waylaid eight American dragoons near Ball’s house —killed two and captured the quartermaster’s sergeant, a Frenchman.

July 4/5 – Fort Mason – 4

From: A HISTORY OF MISSOURI, by Louis Houck, 1908, Vol 3, p. 111:
“In July [1813]) on the frontier of St. Charles near Ft. Mason on the Mississippi river, Captain Allen Ramsay, John Duff, Levi Tansey, DAVIS WHITESIDE, John Matthews, Stephen Hancock Jr, and others had an engagement with some Winnebago Indians. They were in hot pursuit of the Indians and on the 4th of July reached an Indian camp… fired upon them… the Indians rallied and returned the fire… Tansey behind a small tree had a number of holes shot through his hunting shirt and was wounded across the wrist. Matthews was shot through the leg and had his horse killed;- nr Fort Mason Captain Allen Ramsay was killed; Whiteside and Duff were both mortally wounded and died…”

Nathan Boone and the American Frontier
On July 4, eleven rangers were attacked by an equivalent force of Winnebago’s near Fort Mason.
The rangers rode off when the skirmish ended, but the Winnebago’s followed their trail and attacked
them again the next day.
By the time the rangers reached Fort Mason one man had been killed and three fatally wounded

July Fort Madison – 5
Fort Madison, Ft Tours
In July, 1813, a party of Winnebago and Sauk killed two soldiers cutting timber for a new, detached blockhouse at the fort. A week later, four soldiers of the U.S. Rangers guarding the unfinished blockhouse were set upon and killed by hostile Indians. During the following weeks, Indians frequently attacked the fort with burning arrows.

But this attack was only a beginning.  Twice in July, 1813, the Indians suddenly appeared.  On the second visit they caught a corporal and three privates in an outlying blockhouse.  Before they could escape they were killed and horribly mangled by the savages.

The War of 1812 Magazine
However, Winnebago’s again used the spring branch to approach undetected and attacked the work party on the morning of the 8th of July, 1813.[75] Private Samuel Heritage, from Desha’s company of the 24th infantry, was “killed in action” and Private John Minard of Owens Company of the 1st Infantry was “shot and killed.”

July 7 nr Ft. Meigs picket guard – 7
Ohio Fundamental Documents
1813, July 21. A picket guard of 11 men is sent out of Ft. Meigs to a spot 300 yards below the fort.
They are surprised by Indians and 7 are killed.

Lieutenant SHAFOR’s Diary
July 2d, a party of men left Camp Meigs to go to Defiance, but were attacked by a party of Indians. Two were found dead ; the rest were all missing, except one, who got back to the fort. He said they were all killed and taken prisoners.
” On the morning of the 25th the Indians attacked the wood-guard, which was sent out at reveille, and killed five or six, and then continued firing on the garrison all day, doing no damage.

July 16 – Private 1st Infantry – 1
First Regiment, Infantry — United States Army.
BowEES, John— Private, Capt. Horatio Stark’s Company ; enlisted, May 28, ’12, for five years ; killed by Indians, July 16, ’13.

October 3 – Thames – 2

The Battle of the Thames
by Colonel B. H. Young 1903
The second night the Americans camped ten miles above the mouth of the Thames, and next morning at day-light resumed the rapid gait of the day before, with the
belief on their part that during the day they would be able
to force the British to stand and give battle.

About midday, at the Fork of the Thames, the Indians and British attempted to dispute the passage of the right-hand fork and had torn the planks off the bridge.
After a warm skirmish the Indians were driven away from the upper bridge, which was seized by Colonel Johnson with a loss of two men killed and seven wounded. Among the wounded was Captain Elijah Craig, who subsequently died.
The Indians had thirteen killed and a large number wounded.

At Chatham, four miles from Dal son’s and sixteen from lake St. Clair, is a small deep creek, where we found the bridge taken up and the enemy disposed to dispute our passage, and upon the arrival of the advanced guard, commenced a heavy fire from the opposite bank as well as a flank fire from the right bank of the river. The army halted and formed in order of battle. The bridge wa$ repaired under the cover of a fire from two six pounders.
The Indians did not relish the fire of our cannon and retired. Col. Johnson being on the right, had seized the remains of a bridge at McGregor’s mills, under a heavy fire from the Indians.
He lost on this occasion, two killed and four wounded.

October 5 Thames River Harrison – 15

Tecumseh’s Last Stand p133
The Americans were left to consolidate their position, tally the cost, and squabble over the victory.
At least fifteen of their men were killed or fatally wounded, all of them in action with Indians,
and another fourteen were wounded.

Battle of the Thames
Harrison reported that the British regulars had 12 killed and 22 wounded prisoners. Lieutenant Richard Bullock of the 41st Regiment, however, said that there were 12 killed and 36 wounded prisoners. British Lieutenant-Colonels Augustus Warburton and William Evans both reported, more than a year after the battle, that 18 were killed and 25 wounded.[3] Harrison reported 601 British troops captured: a figure that included the prisoners taken during the retreat leading up to the battle and stragglers captured after it.[4]

The Native Americans recorded their own casualties as 16 killed, including Tecumseh and Roundhead,[5] although Harrison claimed that 33 dead warriors were found in the woods after the battle.[6]

There are several versions of the American loss in the battle. Harrison stated 7 killed outright, 5 died of wounds and 17 wounded. Major Isaac Shelby said 7-8 killed outright, 4 died of wounds and about 20 wounded. Participants Robert McAfee and Peter Trisler, Jr., respectively gave 10 killed and 35 wounded and 14 killed and 20 wounded.[7] Historian Samuel R. Brown stated 25 killed or fatally injured and 50 wounded in Johnson’s regiment and 2 killed and 6-7 wounded in the infantry, for a total of 27 killed and 56 or 57 wounded[8]
Harrison informed United States Secretary of War John Armstrong, Jr. that the only casualties inflicted on his command by the British troops at the battle were three men wounded: all of the rest were inflicted by the Indians.[3]

The American army had fifteen killed and thirty wounded

Michell Brouilette was born in Canada. He died 6 Jan 1797 and is buried in the Old Cathedral Cemetery, Vincennes. He was married to Barbe Boneaux. Children Michel born 1774; Laurent born 1776; Barbe born 1778; Marie Louise born 1781; Pierre born 1782; Genevieve born 1785; Ursule born 1788; Laurent (2nd) born 1792 killed in the battle of Tippecanoe. Source Page 73, Roster of Soldiers and Patriots of the American Revolution Buried in Indiana, 1938.

December 19 – Lewiston – NY. militia – 2
The Whitmoyer Saga
During the War of 1812 John was a Loyalist (i.e., loyal Canadian) when the Americans invaded Canada and seized the town of Newark. As narrated above, his sister Sarah, carried off by the Mohawks, later was married to Horatio Jones, interpreter of the Seneca nation. In the War of 1812, two of Sarah’s sons were soldiers in the New York militia and were among the troops occupying Newark, Ontario in December, 1813. They knew that their uncle John lived just three miles beyond the town along the lake shore, and their step-mother had asked them to visit this uncle if at all possible. Unknown to the brothers, British troops had marched in and were camped on a farm between their Uncle John’s place and the town, preparing to attack. The two young men took a boat after dark, rowed along the lake shore, and managed to land unseen, just a few paces from John’s house. Kirby says, “Whitmore met them, and was horrified when he saw who they were. He knew that if discovered they would be seized and shot as spies. He told the young officers that they were within the British lines. They, too, were greatly alarmed, not having foreseen such a possibility.” Whitmore led his nephews to the house of a neighbor, the local Anglican priest, who took them to the headquarters of the British commander, Colonel Murray. This worthy officer, having heard the story, rather than arrest the young brothers ordered them to get in their boat and go back to their own camp, and thus they returned to their regiment unharmed. “Sad was their fate, however,” notes Kirby.
“Ten days after this visit these two young officers were killed and scalped by the Indians on the hill at Lewiston [NY], after the British crossed over and stormed [the American] Fort Niagara, December 19, 1813.”


Michigan’s early military forces: a roster and history of troops activated
Levi Bunnell April 4
Randall Sept 1814

June/July Fort Greenville

Niles National Register volume 6
From other papers we learn that the enemy’s loss at Ctuppewa in killed, wounded and prisoners was between 5Su and 600 men ; 3000 men immediately Jeft .Montreal for the head of lake Ontario, on the defeat of gen. Jfr’u? being known there—they had a Jong journey before them : 300 riflemen that left Sackett’s Harbor to reinforce gen. B:-own were compelled by stress of weather to land on Stony Island ; and fears for their safety had been entertained—they

July 5 – Chippewa – 1

WAR OF 1812 – Perry County, PA
11th Regiment (Division)
Capt James PIPER’s`Company
Privates: Fry, Joseph [3], Greenwood
Joseph Fry was killed at Chippewa by Indians July 5th

July 21 – Rock Island Rapids Campbell Sac Indians – 16
Campbell’s Island, Illinois
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Campbell’s Island was the site of the Battle of Rock Island Rapids, one of the westernmost battles of the War of 1812, when a band of approximately 500 Sauk warriors allied with the British Army clashed on July 21, 1814 with an American force led by Lieutenant John Campbell of the 1st U.S. Regiment of Infantry. Campbell was leading three gunboats along the Mississippi River to carry military supplies to Fort Shelby, located at the present site of Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.[1] One boat carried 42 people – soldiers of the 1st U.S. Regiment of Infantry and members of their families. The other two boats carried 66 U.S. Rangers. The British-allied Indians attacked the flotilla in their canoes and forced Campbell to turn back.[2] The American loss was 8 men of the 1st Regiment killed and 16 wounded;4 Rangers killed and 8 wounded.
July 26 – Mackinac – 13 – 17
Mackinac Island Elementary Students Re-Enact 1814 Battle

The British, led by Colonel Robert McDouall, knew about the Americans’ approach and sent 140 soldiers and volunteers, as well as 350 Native Americans, out to meet the invading troops.
The Colonel then received a rumor that more American soldiers were approaching from behind, and sent troops to meet them.
Menominee Indian L’Espagnol and his nephew, Yellow Dog, stayed behind to fight. They killed Major Holmes, at which point the rest of the British troop returned to attack from the other flank. Lt. Col. Croghan ordered a retreat, and the British retained control of Fort Mackinac until the Treaty of Ghent was signed in December 1814.

The Second Battle of Mackinac Island
Jul 26, 1814 – Aug 4, 1814
On July 26, a squadron of five U.S. ships under Commodore Arthur Sinclair arrived off Mackinac Island carrying a landing force of 700 soldiers under the command of Croghan. The force was made of an ad hoc battalion of regular infantry (made up of detached companies of the 17th, 19th and 24th U.S. Infantry, under Major Andrew Holmes) and a battalion of volunteers from the Ohio militia, with detachments of artillery.
Croghan discovered that the new British blockhouse stood too high for the naval guns to reach, forcing an unprotected assault on the fort’s wall. The Americans shelled the fort for two days, with most of the shells falling harmlessly in vegetable gardens around the fort.
A dense fog forced the Americans back from the island for a week. Upon their return the Americans, led by Holmes, assaulted the north end of the island, near the location of the 1812 British assault. The Americans worked their way to the fort through dense woods which were protected by Native American allies of the British, finally emerging into a clearing below the fort.
McDouall, in the meantime, had placed a force of 140 men of the Royal Newfoundland Fencibles and Michigan Fencibles, with 150 Menominee Indians from the Wisconsin River and two field guns, behind low breastworks at the opposite end of the clearing.
A false report of a landing west of the fort caused him to withdraw his red coated infantry, but when the Americans emerged from the woods into the clearing, they were easy targets for the British guns.
The Americans attempted to work through the woods to flank the guns but were ambushed by the Indians. Thirteen Americans, including Major Holmes and two other officers, were killed, and 51 were wounded. Because of the heavy losses and confusion, Croghan was forced to order his men to retreat back through the woods to the beach. The Americans rowed back to their ships, leaving the fort in the hands of the British until the end of the war.

and in April, 1814, a reinforcement of about 90 men, under an active and zealous officer, Lieut.-Colonel M’Douall, was forwarded with military stores and provisions, by a back route to Michilimakinack.
They embarked in twenty-four bateaux from Nottawassega Bay on Lake Huron, distant 260 miles from Michilimakinack, and, after a very tempestuous passage of twenty-five days, reached the fort on the 18th of May. On the 26th July, an American expedition from Lake Erie, consisting of three brigs and two schooners of war, under Captain Sinclair, with nearly 800 troops on board, appeared off Michilimakinack, and a landing was effected by them on the 4th of August.
The British force on the island amounted to only 190 men, including regulars, militia, and Indians, with which
Lieut.-Colonel M’Donall repulsed every effort of the Americans to approach the fort; so that they were glad, to re-embark the same evening in the utmost haste and confusion, leaving 17 dead on the ground, while the garrison had only one Indian killed.

Ancestors and Descendents of Asa Jarmon Lee Sowell
Lewis Sowell was killed by Indians at Mackinaw Island in War of 1812.
He served as a private in Vol. Infantry under Col. Benjamin Houette.
He had no record of marriage. He may have been born in about 1790.

Aug – scouts and Delawares

Niles National Register volume 6
Rapids, August 13, 1791.
A scouting-party from the Americans carried off a man and a woman yesterday morning between tbi* place and Roche de Bout, and afterwards attacked a small party of Delawarcs in their camp; but they were repulsed with the loss of a man, whom lliey either hid or threw into the river. They kdled a Delaware woman.

Aug 20 – near Fort Erie Report Drummond

Sept. – near Fort Erie Private 13th Inf – 1
Thirteenth Regiment, Infantry— United States Army.
Coeiell, Abraham— Private, Capt Myndert M. Dox’s Company ; enlisted, March 6, ’13, for the war; killed, by Indians, near Fort Erie, Upper Canada, Sept., ’14.

Sept. 3 Fort Gratiot Lt. Bailey – 4

Officers of the U. S. Army – Bailey
Bailey, James Lieutenant
killed in action with Indians near Ft Gratiot Michigan 3 Sept. 1814
Border Incidents

In 1813, the Indians of the Western and London Districts held a great council on the St. Clair River, at which it was decided to capture and kill all American sympathizers on each side of the river. A friendly squaw gave the alarm, and the greater number fled to Detroit; but King, an Englishman, who settled in Canada, did not think they would harm him; but next day, he and a man named Rodd, husband of old mother Rodd, were shot and killed the Indians not approaching near enough to recognize them as Englishmen. Among the savages engaged in this affair were Old Salt, Black Foot, Wapoose (the medicine man), and Wawanosh, who died at Sarnia about 1878. For those miscreants the British erected houses in 1828 near Sarnia, building material and shingles being purchased from Burtch, of Port Huron. At Marine City, and, indeed, along the American bank of the St. Clair River, the settlers suffered much during the War of 1812-14. Families were marked out for Indian vengeance by the British on account of the older boys being in the American army, and it was common for a mother and her children to hide in the willow groves for weeks.
The tragedy at Bunce’s Creek, a few miles south of Port Huron, points out the manner in which this war was conducted in Western Canada. A party of five soldiers started from Fort Gratiot to row to Detroit. A company of Indians under Tawas, a quarter-breed, was at this point awaiting them, and, when the soldiers appeared, hoisted a white flag to decoy them. The troops, unfortunately, rowed toward the creek; but when close to the river bank, the Indians opened fire, killing four of the men, leaving the fifth to sink or swim in the river. He saved himself, however, and, after many hardships, returned to Fort Gratiot.

Sept 4 (9) – Hill’s Fort Ill Rangers – 4

Greenville, Ill
Hills Fort Massacre
Hills Fort was built on one acre about 1811 in what is now Mills Township. On September 4, 1814, four rangers were killed.

The History of Hill’s Fort

With expansion of the settlements in the Illinois Country it became necessary to build a string of forts to serve as military stations to protect the scattered settlers from Indian attacks. Three forts were built in Bond County: Jones, Lindley, and Hill’s Fort.
Three separate Indian attacks are associated with Hill’s Fort. June 2, 1811, the Cox family cabin north of Pocahontas was attacked, with one child killed and one kidnapped. In August 1812, Henry Cox and his son were killed at their cabin site on Beaver Creek.
On September 9, 1814, thirteen Rangers and civilians were bush-wacked outside the fort. Four were killed and three injured.

Sept 4 – Credit Island Taylor Sac Indians – 2
Credit Island
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
On September 4–5, 1814 the Battle of Credit Island, one of the battles in the western
theatre of the War of 1812 was fought here between Sauk Indians with British
support and a regiment under the command of Major Zachary Taylor.[2]
Taylor led a force of more than 350 U.S. regulars and militia to relieve Prairie
du Chien and evacuate the garrison.[3] When Taylor’s command reached the Rock
River on the evening of September 4, Taylor encamped. That night, Black Hawk
attacked Taylor’s pickets and killed two of his men.

Sept 17 – Fort Erie sortie – 1
Amos Spring
During the War of 1812, Amos Spring, Jr. enlisted as a private in Lt. Norton E. Davis company of Col. Davies Regiment, New York Militia. He was later promoted to second corporal. He was in the Sortie at Fort Erie, Canada, on September 17, 1814, when his brother Darius, a member of the same Company, was killed and scalped by the Indians who were in the employ of the British.

SPRING Darius 23 Mar 1792 17 Sep 1814 Otis MA 22y A-49
Son of Amos & Rebecca Spring; killed at Battle of Fort Erie, Scalped by Indians

November – Near Peoria Illinois Rangers – 1

The Illinois River Potawatomi in the War of 1812


In November a group of Illinois rangers who were driving a herd of cattle to Peoria fired upon a group of friendly Potawatomi.
In the resulting skirmish four Indians and one American were killed.
Instead of immediately attempting to avenge their dead comrades, the Indians calmly acceptedgoods and apologies from Forsyth and reavowed their friendship
to the United States.88

TOTAL – 791

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